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Polyurethanes: Science, Technology, Markets, and Trends

Polyurethanes: Science, Technology, Markets, and Trends

Mark F. Sonnenschein

ISBN: 978-1-118-73791-0

Nov 2014

432 pages

$124.99

Description

A complete overview of a key plastic

One of the most versatile polymer materials, polyurethanes have a unique chemical nature that allows for shaping and molding to fit all sorts of consumer and industrial products – seat cushions, carpets, insulation, coatings, and refrigerators to name a few. Despite its popular uses, polyurethane science has only relatively recently achieved appreciation for the richness of its expression as a polymer family. This book provides a thorough presentation of polyurethane science, technology markets and trend analysis based on recent patents.  Although it does not provide ultimate detail (such as explicit information typically in patents), the book has a flow and continuity that allows readers to find all the background necessary to understand any other more detailed polyurethane information found elsewhere.

Anyone involved in the polymer and plastics industry will find this book a key resource with features that include:

  • An in-depth summary of the current state of polyurethane research and knowledge
  • Discussion of the applications, manufacture, and markets for polyurethanes
  • Analytical methods, reaction mechanisms, morphology, theoretical techniques, and the selection of chain extenders
  • Polyurethane flexible and rigid foams, elastomers, coatings, adhesives, and medical applications
  • In-depth coverage of governmental regulations, non-isocyanate/non-phosgene routes to polyurethane structure, and industrial routes to environmental, health, and safety risk mitigation
     

Acknowledgments xi

1 Introduction 1

2 Polyurethane Building Blocks 10

2.1 Polyols 11

2.1.1 Polyether Polyols 12

2.1.2 Polyester Polyols 28

2.1.3 Other Polyols 42

2.1.4 Filled Polyols 48

2.1.5 Seed Oil-Derived Polyols 53

2.1.6 Prepolymers 59

2.2 Isocyanates 61

2.2.1 TDI 63

2.2.2 Diphenylmethane Diisocyanates (MDI) 73

2.2.3 Aliphatic Isocyanates 81

2.3 Chain Extenders 89

3 Introduction to Polyurethane Chemistry 105

3.1 Introduction 105

3.2 Mechanism and Catalysis of Urethane Formation 107

3.3 Reactions of Isocyanates with Active Hydrogen Compounds 113

3.3.1 Urea Formation 116

3.3.2 Allophanate Formation 117

3.3.3 Formation of Biurets 119

3.3.4 Formation of Uretidione (isocyanate dimer) 119

3.3.5 Formation of Carbodiimide 120

3.3.6 Formation of Uretonimine 120

3.3.7 Formation of Amides 123

4 Theoretical Concepts and Techniques in Polyurethane Science 127

4.1 Formation of Polyurethane Structure 128

4.2 Properties of Polyurethanes 137

4.2.1 Models and Calculations for Polymer Modulus 138

4.2.2 Models for Elastomer Stress Strain Properties 143

4.2.3 The Polyurethane Glass Transition Temperature 152

5 Analytical Characterization of Polyurethanes 160

5.1 Analysis of Reagents for Making Polyurethanes 161

5.1.1 Analysis of Polyols 161

5.1.2 Analysis of Isocyanates 166

5.2 Instrumental Analysis of Polyurethanes 168

5.2.1 Microscopy 169

5.2.2 IR Spectrometry 176

5.2.3 X-Ray Analyses 181

5.3 Mechanical Analysis 188

5.3.1 Tensile Tear and Elongation Testing 189

5.3.2 DMA 195

5.4 N uclear Magnetic Spectroscopy 199

6 Polyurethane Flexible Foams: Chemistry and Fabrication 207

6.1 Making Polyurethane Foams 208

6.1.1 Slabstock Foams 208

6.1.2 Molded Foams 213

6.2 Foam Processes 217

6.2.1 Surfactancy and Catalysis 223

6.3 Flexible Foam Formulation and Structure–Property Relationships 228

6.3.1 Screening Tests 228

6.3.2 Foam Formulation and Structure–Property Relationships 230

7 Polyurethane Flexible Foams: Manufacture Applications Markets and Trends 235

7.1 Applications 237

7.1.1 Furniture 238

7.1.2 Mattresses and Bedding 241

7.1.3 Transportation 245

7.1.4 The Molded Foam Market 246

7.2 Trends in Molded Foam Technology and Markets 249

8 Polyurethane Rigid Foams: Manufacture Applications Markets and Trends 255

8.1 Regional Market Dynamics 255

8.2 Applications 260

8.2.1 Construction Foams 260

8.2.2 Rigid Construction Foam Market Segments 272

8.2.3 Appliance Foams 276

8.3 Blowing Agents and Insulation Fundamentals 281

8.3.1 Blowing Agents 281

8.3.2 Blowing Agent Phase-Out Schedule 282

8.4 Insulation Fundamentals 284

8.5 Trends in Rigid Foams Technology 287

9 Polyurethane Elastomers: Manufacture Applications Markets and Trends 294

9.1 Regional Market Dynamics 295

9.2 Applications 298

9.2.1 Footwear 300

9.2.2 N onfootwear Elastomer Applications and Methods of Manufacture 307

9.3 Trends in PU Elastomers 328

10 Polyurethane Adhesives and Coatings: Manufacture Applications Markets and Trends 336

10.1 Adhesive and Coating Industries: Similarities and Differences 336

10.2 Adhesives 339

10.2.1 Adhesive Formulations 342

10.2.2 Trends in PU Adhesives 350

10.3 Coatings 353

10.3.1 PU Coating Formulations 359

10.3.2 Trends in PU Coatings 368

11 Special Topics: Medical Uses of Polyurethane 375

11.1 Markets and Participants 375

11.2 Technology 377

11.2.1 Catheters 377

11.2.2 Wound Dressings 380

11.2.3 Bioabsorbable Polyurethanes 382

11.2.4 Hydrogels 386

11.2.5 Gloves and Condoms 387

12 Special Topic: Nonisocyanate Routes to Polyurethanes 392

12.1 Governmental Regulation of Isocyanates 392

12.2 N onisocyanate Routes to Polyurethanes 395

12.2.1 Reactions of Polycyclic Carbonates with Polyamines 395

12.2.2 Direct Transformations of Amines to Urethanes 400

12.2.3 Reactions of Polycarbamates 403

12.2.4 Conversion of Hydroxamic Acids to Polyurethane 404

12.2.5 Conversion of Hydroxylamines to Polyurethanes 406

Index 409