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Positioning in Wireless Communications Systems

Hardcover

$113.00

Positioning in Wireless Communications Systems

Stephan Sand, Armin Dammann, Christian Mensing

ISBN: 978-0-470-77064-1 May 2014 276 Pages

Description

Positioning in Wireless Communications Systems explains the principal differences and similarities of wireless communications systems and navigation systems. It discusses scenarios which are critical for dedicated navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and which motivate the use of positioning based on terrestrial wireless communication systems.

The book introduces approaches for determination of parameters which are dependent on the position of the mobile terminal  and also discusses iterative algorithms to estimate and track the position of the mobile terminal. Models for radio propagation and user mobility are important for performance investigations and assessments using computer simulations. Thus, channel and mobility models are explored, especially focussing on critical navigation environments like urban or indoor scenarios.

Positioning in Wireless Communications Systems examines advanced algorithms such as hybrid data fusion of satellite navigation and positioning with wireless communications and cooperative positioning among mobile terminals.. The performance of the discussed positioning techniques are explored on the basis of already existing and operable terrestrial wireless communication systems such as GSM, UMTS, or LTE and it is shown how positioning issues are fixed in respective standards.

Written by industry experts working at the cutting edge of technological development, the authors are well placed to give an excellent view on this topic, enabling in-depth coverage of current developments.

Key features
• Unique in its approach to dealing with a heterogeneous system approach, different cell structures and signal proposals for future communications systems
• Covers hybrid positioning investigating how GNSS and wireless communications positioning complement each other
• Applications and exploitation of positioning information are discussed to show the benefits of including this information in several parts of a wireless communications system

About the Authors ix

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiii

List of Abbreviations xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Ground Based Positioning Systems 4

1.1.1 DECCA 4

1.1.2 LORAN 5

1.1.3 OMEGA 6

1.2 Satellite Based Positioning Systems 6

1.2.1 GPS 8

1.2.2 GLONASS 11

1.2.3 Galileo 11

1.3 GNSS Augmentation Systems 13

1.3.1 Differential GNSS – DGNSS 14

1.3.2 Wide Area Augmentation System – WAAS 15

1.3.3 European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service – EGNOS 16

1.3.4 Multi-Functional Satellite Augmentation System – MSAS 17

1.3.5 GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation – GAGAN 17

1.4 Critical Environments 17

2 Positioning Principles 21

2.1 Propagation Time 22

2.1.1 Time of Arrival – TOA 23

2.1.2 Time Difference of Arrival – TDOA 26

2.1.3 Round-Trip Time of Arrival – RTTOA 28

2.1.4 Comparison of Circular and Hyperbolic Positioning 30

2.2 Angle of Arrival – AOA 32

2.2.1 Two-Dimensional 32

2.2.2 Three-Dimensional 33

2.2.3 AOA in the Uplink 35

2.2.4 The Problem of Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation 35

2.3 Fingerprinting 35

2.3.1 Cell-ID 36

2.3.2 Received Signal Strength – RSS 37

2.3.3 Power Delay Profile – PDP 38

3 Measurements and Parameter Extraction 41

3.1 Parameter Estimation 41

3.1.1 The Estimation Problem 41

3.1.2 Cramér – Rao Lower Bound – CRLB 43

3.2 Propagation Time 46

3.2.1 Cramér – Rao Lower Bound for Time Estimation 47

3.2.2 Timing Estimation in White Gaussian Noise 51

3.3 Angle of Arrival – AOA 59

3.3.1 Uniform Linear Array Antenna 59

3.3.2 AOA Estimation in Additive White Gaussian Noise 63

3.3.3 Cramér – Rao Lower Bound for AOA Estimation 65

4 Position Estimation 69

4.1 Triangulation 69

4.1.1 Triangulation with Ideal Measurements 70

4.1.2 Triangulation with Erroneous Measurements 79

4.2 Trilateration 82

4.2.1 Trilateration with Ideal Measurements 83

4.2.2 Trilateration with Erroneous Measurements 84

4.3 Multilateration 88

4.3.1 Multilateration with Ideal Measurements 88

4.3.2 Multilateration with Erroneous Measurements 91

4.4 Fingerprinting 93

4.5 Performance Bounds and Measures 94

4.5.1 Root Mean Square Error – RMSE 94

4.5.2 Cumulative Distribution Function – CDF 94

4.5.3 Circular Error Probability – CEP 94

4.5.4 Positioning Cramér – Rao Lower Bound – CRLB 95

4.5.5 Dilution of Precision – DOP 96

4.5.6 Complexity 99

5 Position Tracking 101

5.1 Kalman Filter 104

5.2 Extended Kalman Filter 108

5.3 Particle Filter 111

5.4 Further Approaches 115

5.4.1 Grid-Based Methods 115

5.4.2 Second Order Extended Kalman Filter 117

5.4.3 Unscented Kalman Filter 117

5.4.4 Gaussian Mixture Filter 117

5.4.5 Rao – Blackwellization 118

5.4.6 Map Matching 118

6 Scenarios and Models 119

6.1 Scenarios 119

6.1.1 Rural Environment 120

6.1.2 Urban Environment 121

6.1.3 Transition from Outdoor to Indoor 126

6.1.4 Indoor Environment 126

6.2 Channel Characterization 127

6.2.1 Channel Measurements 127

6.2.2 Ray Tracing 127

6.3 Channel Models 127

6.4 Mobility Models 129

7 Advanced Positioning Algorithms 135

7.1 Hybrid Data Fusion 135

7.1.1 General Hybrid Data Fusion Aspects 135

7.1.2 Extension of Derived Algorithms to More Sources 135

7.1.3 Simulation Results 137

7.2 Cooperative Positioning 139

7.2.1 General Cooperative Positioning Aspects 139

7.2.2 Example for Centralized Cooperative Positioning 141

7.2.3 Simulation Results 144

7.3 Multipath and Non-Line-of-Sight Mitigation 144

8 Systems 147

8.1 GSM 147

8.1.1 System Parameters 148

8.1.2 Measurements 151

8.1.3 Timing Advance – TA 151

8.1.4 Enhanced Observed Time Difference – EOTD 152

8.1.5 Uplink Time of Arrival – UTOA 154

8.1.6 Assisted GNSS – AGNSS 155

8.1.7 Cramér – Rao Lower Bounds 156

8.2 UMTS 158

8.2.1 System Parameters 159

8.2.2 Measurements 160

8.2.3 Cell-ID and Enhanced Cell-ID Based 162

8.2.4 Observed Time Difference of Arrival – OTDOA 163

8.2.5 Comparison of UMTS and GSM 165

8.2.6 Cramér – Rao Lower Bounds 165

8.3 3GPP-LTE 167

8.3.1 System Parameters 168

8.3.2 Measurements 171

8.3.3 Synchronization 173

8.3.4 Cramér – Rao Lower Bounds 173

8.3.5 Performance Results 179

8.4 Other Wide and Medium Range Systems 182

8.4.1 WiMAX 182

8.4.2 WLAN 183

8.5 Short Range 186

8.5.1 Bluetooth 186

8.5.2 ZigBee 188

8.5.3 Ultra-Wideband – UWB 189

8.5.4 Radio-Frequency Identification and Near Feld Communication – RFID and NFC 191

8.6 Standardization 193

9 Applications 197

9.1 Macro Diversity 197

9.1.1 Cellular Diversity 197

9.1.2 Location-Based Synchronization for Cellular OFDM 203

9.1.3 Position Aware Adaptive Communications Systems 209

9.2 Radio Resource Management – RRM 216

9.2.1 Location-Based Inter-Cell Interference Coordination – ICIC 216

9.2.2 Location-Aided Relay Selection 219

9.3 Mobility Management 223

9.3.1 Location Assisted Handover Prediction for WiFi and LTE – Algorithm 224

9.3.2 Scenario 225

9.3.3 Summary of Results 225

9.4 Emergency Calls 226

9.5 Location-Based Services – LBS 227

9.5.1 Mobile and Location Aware Advertising 228

9.5.2 Social Networks 228

9.5.3 Navigation and Route Planning 229

9.5.4 Mobile Gaming 229

9.5.5 Disruptive Applications 229

9.5.6 Future Applications 230

References 233

Index 245