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# Power System Transient Analysis: Theory and Practice using Simulation Programs (ATP-EMTP)

ISBN: 978-1-118-73745-3 February 2016 280 Pages

## Description

Understanding transient phenomena in electric power systems and the harmful impact of resulting disturbances is an important aspect of power system operation and resilience. Bridging the gap from theory to practice, this guide introduces the fundamentals of transient phenomena affecting electric power systems using the numerical analysis tools, Alternative Transients Program- Electromagnetic Transients Program (ATP-EMTP) and ATP-DRAW. This technology is widely-applied to recognize and solve transient problems in power networks and components giving readers a highly practical and relevant perspective and the skills to analyse new transient phenomena encountered in the field.

Key features:

• Introduces novice engineers to transient phenomena using commonplace tools and models as well as background theory to link theory to practice.
• Develops analysis skills using the ATP-EMTP program, which is widely used in the electric power industry.
• Comprehensive coverage of recent developments such as HVDC power electronics with several case studies and their practical results.
• Provides extensive practical examples with over 150 data files for analysing transient phenomena and real life practical examples via a companion website.

Written by experts with deep experience in research, teaching and industry, this text defines transient phenomena in an electric power system and introduces a professional transient analysis tool with real examples to novice engineers in the electric power system industry. It also offers instruction for graduates studying all aspects of power systems.

## Related Resources

##### Student

View Student Companion Site

Preface ix

Part I Standard Course-Fundamentals and Typical Phenomena 1

1 Fundamentals of EMTP 3

1.1 Function and Composition of EMTP 3

1.1.1 Lumped Parameter RLC 3

1.1.2 Transmission Line 4

1.1.3 Transformer 6

1.1.4 Nonlinear Element 6

1.1.5 Arrester 6

1.1.6 Switch 7

1.1.7 Voltage and Current Sources 7

1.1.8 Generator and Rotating Machine 7

1.1.9 Control 7

1.1.10 Support Routines 7

1.2 Features of the Calculation Method 8

1.2.1 Formulation of the Main Circuit 8

1.2.2 Calculation in TACS 12

1.2.3 Features of EMTP 13

References 16

2 Modeling of System Components 17

2.1 Overhead Transmission Lines and Underground Cables 17

2.1.1 Overhead Transmission Line—Line Constants 17

2.1.2 Underground Cables—Cable Parameters 37

2.2 Transformer 46

2.2.1 Single‐Phase Two-Winding Transformer 46

2.2.2 Single‐Phase Three‐Winding Transformer 50

2.2.3 Three‐Phase One‐Core Transformer—Three Legs or Five Legs 53

2.2.4 Frequency and Transformer Modeling 55

3 Transient Currents in Power Systems 57

3.1 Short‐Circuit Currents 57

3.2 Transformer Inrush Magnetizing Current 60

3.3 Transient Inrush Currents in Capacitive Circuits 62

Appendix 3.A: Example of ATPDraw Sheets—Data3‐02.acp 64

Reference 64

4 Transient at Current Breaking 65

4.1 Short‐Circuit Current Breakings 66

4.2 Capacitive Current Switching 71

4.2.1 Switching of Capacitive Current of a No‐Load Overhead Transmission Line 72

4.2.2 Switching of Capacitive Current of a Cable 75

4.2.3 Switching of Capacitive Current of a Shunt Capacitor Bank 76

4.3 Inductive Current Switching 78

4.3.1 Current Chopping Phenomenon 78

4.3.2 Reignition 79

4.3.3 High‐Frequency Extinction and Multiple Reignition 80

4.4 TRV with Parallel Capacitance in SLF Breaking 80

Appendix 4.A: Current Injection to Various Circuit Elements 84

Appendix 4.B: TRV Calculation, Including ITRV—Current Injection is Applied for TRV Calculation 91

Appendix 4.C: 550 kV Line Normal Breaking 97

Appendix 4.D: 300 kV, 150 MVA Shunt Reactor Current Breaking—Current

Chopping—Reignition—HF Current Interruption 100

References 103

5 Black Box Arc Modeling 105

5.1 Mayr Arc Model 106

5.1.1 Analysis of Phenomenon of Short‐Line Fault Breaking 106

5.1.2 Analysis of Phenomenon of Shunt Reactor Switching 110

5.2 Cassie Arc Model 112

5.2.1 Analysis of Phenomenon of Current Zero Skipping 113

Appendix 5.A: Mayr Arc Model Calculating SLF Breaking, 300 kV, 50 kA, L90 Condition 118

Appendix 5.B: Zero Skipping Current Breaking Near Generator—Fault Current Lasting 124

Appendix 5.C: Zero Skipping Current Breaking Near Generator—Dynamic Arc Introduced, Still Nonbreaking 131

6 Typical Power Electronics Circuits in Power Systems 135

6.1 General 135

6.2 HVDC Converter/Inverter Circuits 135

6.3 Static Var Compensator/Thyristor‐Controlled Inductor 140

6.4 PWM Self‐Communicated Type Inverter Applying the Triangular Carrier Wave Shape Principle—Applied to SVG (Static Var Generator) 142

Appendix 6.A: Example of ATPDraw Picture 147

Reference 148

Part II Advanced Course-Special Phenomena and Various Applications 149

7 Special Switching 151

7.1 Transformer‐Limited Short‐Circuit Current Breaking 151

7.2 Transformer Winding Response to Very Fast Transient Voltage 152

7.3 Transformer Magnetizing Current under Geomagnetic Storm Conditions 156

7.4 Four‐Armed Shunt Reactor for Suppressing Secondary Arc in Single‐Pole Rapid Reclosing 159

7.5 Switching Four‐Armed Shunt Reactor Compensated Transmission Line 162

References 163

8 Synchronous Machine Dynamics 165

8.1 Synchronous Machine Modeling and Machine Parameters 165

8.2 Some Basic Examples 167

8.2.1 No‐Load Transmission Line Charging 167

8.2.2 Power Flow Calculation 169

8.2.3 Sudden Short‐Circuiting 172

8.3 Transient Stability Analysis Applying the Synchronous Machine Model 176

8.3.1 Classic Analysis (Equal‐Area Method) and Time Domain Analysis (EMTP) 176

8.3.2 Detailed Transients by Time Domain Analysis: ATP‐EMTP 180

8.3.3 Field Excitation Control 183

8.3.4 Back‐Swing Phenomenon 186

Appendix 8.A: Short‐Circuit Phenomena Observation in d‐q Domain Coordinate 190

Appendix 8.B: Starting as an Induction Motor 193

Appendix 8.C: Modeling by the No. 19 Universal Machine 195

Appendix 8.D: Example of ATPDraw Picture File: Draw8‐111.acp (Figure D8.1). 197

References 198

9 Induction Machine, Doubly Fed Machine, Permanent Magnet Machine 199

9.1 Induction Machine (Cage Rotor Type) 199

9.1.1 Machine Data for EMTP Calculation 200

9.1.2 Zero Starting 201

9.1.3 Mechanical Torque Load Application 204

9.1.4 Multimachines 206

9.1.5 Motor Terminal Voltage Change 208

9.1.6 Driving by Variable Voltage and Frequency Source (VVVF) 209

9.2 Doubly Fed Machine 212

9.2.1 Operation Principle 212

9.2.3 Flywheel Generator Operation 213

9.3 Permanent Magnet Machine 215

9.3.1 Zero Starting (Starting by Direct AC Voltage Source Connection) 217

9.3.2 Calculation of Transient Phenomena 217

Appendix 9.A: Doubly Fed Machine Vector Diagrams 218

Appendix 9.B: Example of ATPDraw Picture 219

10 Machine Drive Applications 221

10.1 Small‐Scale System Composed of a Synchronous Generator and Induction Motor 221

10.1.1 Initialization 221

10.1.2 Induction Motor Starting 223

10.1.3 Application of AVR 225

10.1.4 Inverter‐Controlled VVVF Starting 226

10.2 Cycloconverter 233

10.3 Cycloconverter‐Driven Synchronous Machine 237

10.3.1 Application of Sudden Mechanical Load 237

10.3.2 Quick Starting of a Cycloconverter‐Driven Synchronous Motor 242

10.3.3 Comparison with the Inverter‐Driven System 245

10.4 Flywheel Generator: Doubly Fed Machine Application for Transient Stability Enhancement 248

10.4.1 Initialization 249

10.4.2 Flywheel Activity in Transient Stability Enhancement 254

10.4.3 Active/Reactive Power Effect 254

10.4.4 Discussion 258

Appendix 10.A: Example of ATPDraw Picture 260

Reference 266

Index 267