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Practical Power System Operation

Practical Power System Operation

Ebrahim Vaahedi

ISBN: 978-1-118-91511-0

Mar 2014, Wiley-IEEE Press

248 pages

Description

Power system operation from an operator’s perspective

Power systems are operated with the primary objectives of safety, reliability, and efficiency. Practical Power System Operation is the first book to provide a comprehensive picture of power system operation for both professional engineers and students alike. The book systematically describes the operator’s functions, the processes required to operate the system, and the enabling technology solutions deployed to facilitate the processes. In his book, Dr. Ebrahim Vaahedi, an expert practitioner in the field, presents a holistic review of:

  • The current state and workings of power system operation
  • Problems encountered by operators and solutions to remedy the problems
  • Individual operator functions, processes, and the enabling technology solutions
  • Deployment of real-time assessment, control, and optimization solutions in power system operation
  • Energy Management Systems and their architecture
  • Distribution Management Systems and their architecture
  • Power system operation in the changing energy industry landscape and the evolving technology solutions

Because power system operation is such a critical function around the world, the consequences of improper operation range from financial repercussions to societal welfare impacts that put people’s safety at risk. Practical Power System Operation includes a step-by-step illustrated guide to the operator functions, processes, and decision support tools that enable the processes. As a bonus, it includes a detailed review of the emerging technology and operation solutions that have evolved over the last few years. Written to the standards of higher education and university curriculums, Practical Power System Operation has been classroom tested for excellence and is a must-read for anyone looking to learn the critical skills they need for a successful career in power system operations.

Foreword xi

Preface xiii

General Introduction xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Overview of Power System Operation 1

1.2 Operator 2

1.3 Process 3

1.4 Technology 4

1.5 Power System Operation Criteria 4

1.6 Outline of the Book 5

2 POWER SYSTEM MONITORING 6

2.1 Operator Function in Power System Monitoring 6

2.2 Process for Power System Monitoring 6

2.3 Technology for Power System Monitoring 8

2.3.1 The Role of System Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) 8

2.3.2 State Estimation 10

2.3.3 Least Square Method for State Estimation 11

2.4 Bad Data Identification 16

2.5 Observability 19

Questions and Problems 19

3 POWER SYSTEM SCENARIO ANALYSIS 21

3.1 Operator Function in Power System Scenario Analysis 21

3.2 Process for Power System Scenario Analysis 21

3.3 Technology for Power System Control 22

3.3.1 Infrastructure for Power System Control 22

3.3.2 Technology for Power System Scenario Analysis: Power Flow 26

3.3.3 System Modeling 27

3.3.4 Power Flow Techniques 29

3.3.5 Factorization 42

3.3.6 Sparsity 45

3.3.7 Different Power Flow Scenarios and Applications 46

Questions and Problems 47

4 POWER SYSTEM POSTURING: STATIC SECURITY 48

4.1 Operator’s Question on Power System Posturing: Static Security 48

4.2 Process for Power System Posturing: Static Security 48

4.3 Technology for Power System Posturing: Static Security 49

4.3.1 Contingency Analysis 49

4.3.2 Contingency Definition 50

4.3.3 Contingency Selection 51

4.3.4 Contingency Evaluation 56

4.3.5 Implementation of Remedial Action Schemes 60

Questions and Problems 60

5 POWER SYSTEM POSTURING: ANGULAR STABILITY 62

5.1 Operator’s Question on Power System Posturing: Angular Stability 62

5.2 Process for Power System Posturing: Angular Stability 62

5.3 Technology for Power System Posturing: Angular Stability 65

5.3.1 Angular Stability Assessment 65

5.3.2 Power System Stability 68

5.3.3 Angular Stability 68

5.3.4 Transient Stability 68

5.3.5 Small System 69

5.3.6 Integration Methods 71

5.3.7 Equal-Area Criteria Method 74

5.3.8 Models for Other Components 81

5.3.9 Multimachine System 81

5.3.10 Small-Signal Stability 82

5.3.11 Angular Stability Limit Derivation 83

5.4 Implementation of Angular Stability Limits 85

Questions and Problems 86

6 POWER SYSTEM POSTURING: VOLTAGE STABILITY 88

6.1 Operator’s Question on Power System Posturing: Voltage Stability 88

6.2 Process for Power System Posturing: Voltage Stability 88

6.3 Technology for Power System Posturing: Voltage Stability 91

6.3.1 Voltage Stability Assessment 91

6.4 Voltage Stability Limit Derivation and Implementation 99

6.4.1 Voltage Stability Limit Derivation 99

6.4.2 Implementation of Voltage Stability Limits 100

Questions and Problems 103

7 POWER SYSTEM GENERATION LOAD BALANCE 105

7.1 Operator’s Question on Generation Load Balance 105

7.2 Process for Generation Load Balance 105

7.2.1 Introduction 105

7.2.2 NERC Standards for Automatic Generation Control 108

7.2.3 Process for Automatic Generation Control 109

7.3 Technology for Generation Load Balance 111

7.3.1 Automatic Generation Control Application 111

7.3.2 Automatic Generation Control Infrastructure 115

7.3.3 Example on AGC Operation 116

Questions and Problems 117

8 Power System Operation Optimization 119

8.1 Operator’s Question on Power System Operation Optimization 119

8.2 Process for Power System Generation Operation 120

8.2.1 Introduction 120

8.2.2 Utility Model 120

8.3 Process for Generation Sufficiency 123

8.3.1 Generation Sufficiency Process for Operations Planning 123

8.3.2 Generation Sufficiency Process for Near Real Time 123

8.3.3 Generation Sufficiency Process for Real Time 124

8.4 Technology for Generation Sufficiency 124

8.4.1 Generation Sufficiency Applications 125

8.4.2 Generation Sufficiency Infrastructure 148

Questions and Problems 149

9 SYSTEM OPERATION CONTROL CENTERS 151

9.1 Introduction 151

9.2 Modern Control Center Attributes 151

9.3 Control Center Redundancy Configuration 154

9.4 Modern Control Center Configuration 155

9.5 Modern Control Center Design Details 156

Questions and Problems 159

10 ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 161

10.1 Introduction 161

10.2 Ems Functionality Overview 162

10.2.1 System Monitoring 163

10.2.2 Decision Support Systems 164

10.2.3 EMS Control Actions 164

10.3 Energy Management System Availability Criteria and Architecture 165

10.3.1 Hardware Overview 166

10.3.2 Software Overview 168

10.3.3 Application Sequencing in EMS 171

10.3.4 Software Integration 172

Questions and Problems 174

11 DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 176

11.1 Introduction 176

11.2 DMS Functionality Overview 177

11.2.1 System Monitoring 179

11.2.2 Decision Support Systems 181

11.2.3 DMS Control Actions 186

11.3 Distribution Management System Architecture 186

11.3.1 Hardware Overview 186

11.3.2 Software Overview 187

11.3.3 Application Integration with DMS 189

Questions and Problems 192

12 EVOLVING POWER SYSTEM OPERATION SOLUTIONS 193

12.1 Introduction 193

12.2 Evolving Operation Solutions 193

12.2.1 Online Transient Stability 193

12.2.2 Online Voltage Stability 196

12.2.3 Total Transfer Capability Calculator 197

12.2.4 Transmission Outage Scheduling System 201

12.2.5 Synchrophasor Systems 202

12.2.6 Distribution Automation 204

12.2.7 Dynamic Thermal Rating Systems 205

12.2.8 Distributed Energy Resources 205

12.2.9 Demand Response 206

12.2.10 Microgrid 207

12.2.11 Real-Time Posturing and Control 208

12.2.12 Critical System Application and Facilities Heartbeat 208

12.2.13 Probabilistic Limit Calculations 208

12.2.14 Managing Critical Operations Knowledge: Operations Code Book 210

Appendix A Preliminary Concepts 211

A.1 Introduction 211

A.2 Phasor Representation 211

A.3 Per-Unit Representation 213

A.4 Matrix Algebra 215

A.5 Steady-State Component Modeling 216

A.5.1 Transmission Lines 216

A.5.2 Transformers and Phase Shifters 217

A.5.3 Generators 218

A.5.4 Shunts and Synchronous Condensers 218

A.5.5 Loads 218

A.5.6 Network Equations 218

References 219

Index 224