DescriptionThe ultimate practical resource for today's RF system design professionals
Radio frequency components and circuits form the backbone of today's mobile and satellite communications networks. Consequently, both practicing and aspiring industry professionals need to be able to solve ever more complex problems of RF design.
Blending theoretical rigor with a wealth of practical expertise, Practical RF System Design addresses a variety of complex, real-world problems that system engineers are likely to encounter in today's burgeoning communications industry with solutions that are not easily available in the existing literature. The author, an expert in the field of RF module and system design, provides powerful techniques for analyzing real RF systems, with emphasis on some that are currently not well understood. Combining theoretical results and models with examples, he challenges readers to address such practical issues as:
* How standing wave ratio affects system gain
* How noise on a local oscillator will affect receiver noise figure and desensitization
* How to determine the dynamic range of a cascade from module specifications
* How phase noise affects system performance and where it comes from
* How intermodulation products (IMs) predictably change with signal amplitude, and why they sometimes change differently
An essential resource for today's RF system engineers, the text covers important topics in the areas of system noise and nonlinearity, frequency conversion, and phase noise. Along with a wealth of practical examples using MATLAB(r) and Excel, spreadsheets are available for download from an FTP Web site to help readers apply the methods outlined in this important resource.
GETTING FILES FROM THE WILEY ftp AND INTERNET SITES.
SYMBOLS LIST AND GLOSSARY.
1.1 System Design Process.
1.2 Organization of the Book.
1.5 Test and Simulation.
1.6 Practical Skepticism.
2.1 Simple Cases.
2.2 General Case.
2.3 Simplification: Unilateral Modules.
2.4 Nonstandard Impedances.
2.5 Use of Sensitivities to Find Variations.
3 NOISE FIGURE.
3.1 Noise Factor and Noise Figure.
3.2 Modules in Cascade.
3.3 Applicable Gains and Noise Factors.
3.4 Noise Figure of an Attenuator.
3.5 Noise Figure of an Interconnect.
3.6 Cascade Noise Figure.
3.7 Expected Value and Variance of Noise Figure.
3.8 Impedance-Dependent Noise Factors.
3.9 Image Noise, Mixers.
3.10 Extreme Mismatch, Voltage Amplifiers.
3.11 Using Noise Figure Sensitivities.
3.12 Mixed Cascade Example.
3.13 Gain Controls.
4 NONLINEARITY IN THE SIGNAL PATH.
4.1 Representing Nonlinear Responses.
4.2 Second-Order Terms.
4.3 Third-Order Terms.
4.4 Frequency Dependence and Relationship Between Products.
4.5 Nonlinear Products in the Cascades.
4.6 Examples: Spreadsheets for IMs in a Cascade.
4.7 Anomalous IMs.
4.8 Measuring IMs.
4.9 Compression in the Cascade.
4.10 Other Nonideal Effects.
5 NOISE AND NONLINEARITY.
5.1 Intermodulation of Noise.
5.2 Composite Distortion.
5.3 Dynamic Range.
5.4 Optimizing Cascades.
5.5 Spreadsheet Enhancements.
6 ARCHITECTURES THAT IMPROVE LINEARITY.
6.1 Parallel Combining.
6.4 Nonideal Performance.
7 FREQUENCY CONVERSION.
7.2 Spurious Levels.
7.3 Two-Signal IMs.
7.4 Power Range for Predictable Levels.
7.5 Spur Plot, LO Reference.
7.6 Spur Plot, IF Reference.
7.7 Shape Factors.
7.8 Double Conversion.
7.9 Operating Regions.
7.11 Note on Spur Plots Used in This Chapter.
8 CONTAMINATING SIGNALS IN SEVERE NONLINEARITIES.
8.2 Hard Limiting.
8.3 Soft Limiting.
8.4 Mixers, Through the LO Port.
8.5 Frequency Dividers.
8.6 Frequency Multipliers.
9 PHASE NOISE.
9.1 Describing Phase Noise.
9.2 Adverse Effects of Phase Noise.
9.3 Sources of Phase Noise.
9.4 Processing Phase Noise in a Cascade.
9.5 Determining the Effect on Data.
9.6 Other Measures of Phase Noise.
APPENDIX A: OP AMP NOISE FACTOR CALCULATIONS.
A.1 Invariance When Input Resistor Is Redistributed.
A.2 Effect of Change in Source Resistances.
APPENDIX B: REPRESENTATIONS OF FREQUENCY BANDS, IF NORMALIZATION.
B.2 Acceptance Bands.
B.3 Filter Asymmetry.
APPENDIX C: CONVERSION ARITHMETIC.
C.1 Receiver Calculator.
C.2 Synthesis Calculator.
APPENDIX E: EXAMPLE OF FREQUENCY CONVERSION.
APPENDIX F: SOME RELEVANT FORMULAS.
F.2 Reflection Coefficient and SWR.
F.3 Combining SWRs.
F.3.1 Summary of Results.
F.3.3 Maximum SWR.
F.3.4 Minimum SWR.
F.3.5 Relaxing Restrictions.
F.4 Impedance Transformations in Cables.
F.5 Smith Chart.
APPENDIX G: TYPES OF POWER GAIN.
G.1 Available Gain.
G.2 Maximum Available Gain.
G.3 Transducer Gain.
G.4 Insertion Gain.
G.5 Actual Gain.
APPENDIX H: FORMULAS RELATING TO IMs AND HARMONICS.
H.1 Second Harmonics.
H.2 Second-Order IMs.
H.3 Third Harmonics.
H.4 Third-Order IMs.
H.5 Definitions of Terms.
APPENDIX I: CHANGING THE STANDARD IMPEDANCE.
I.1 General Case.
I.2 Unilateral Module.
APPENDIX L: POWER DELIVERED TO THE LOAD.
APPENDIX M: MATRIX MULTIPLICATION.
APPENDIX N: NOISE FACTORS—STANDARD AND THEORETICAL.
N.1 Theoretical Noise Factor.
N.2 Standard Noise Factor.
N.3 Standard Modules and Standard Noise Factor.
N.4 Module Noise Factor in a Standard Cascade.
N.5 How Can This Be?
N.6 Noise Factor of an Interconnect.
N.6.1 Noise Factor with Mismatch.
N.6.2 In More Usable Terms.
N.6.4 Comparison with Theoretical Value.
N.7 Effect of Source Impedance.
N.8 Ratio of Power Gains.
APPENDIX P: IM PRODUCTS IN MIXERS.
APPENDIX S: COMPOSITE S PARAMETERS.
APPENDIX T: THIRD-ORDER TERMS AT INPUT FREQUENCY.
APPENDIX V: SENSITIVITIES AND VARIANCE OF NOISE FIGURE.
APPENDIX X: CROSSOVER SPURS.
APPENDIX Z: NONSTANDARD MODULES.
Z.1 Gain of Cascade of Modules Relative to Tested Gain.
Z.2 Finding Maximum Available Gain of a Module.
Z.4 Equivalent S Parameters.
Z.5 S Parameters for Cascade of Nonstandard Modules.