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Practical Testing and Evaluation of Plastics

E-Book

$108.99

Practical Testing and Evaluation of Plastics

Achim Frick, Claudia Stern, Vibunanthan Muralidharan

ISBN: 978-3-527-66733-8 November 2018 550 Pages

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Description

Engineering with polymers is a growing technical field which requires special knowledge. Filling a need, this ready reference brings together the hard-to-get and recently acquired knowledge usually only found scattered in the original literature. At the beginning, the reference introduces plastics as a class of technical materials, gives an overview of their properties, presents plastics processing and its possible influence on the achievable quality of plastic parts. Afterwards, plastics testing is presented as a separate, practical-scientific field of work. The possibilities and fields of application of plastics testing will be discussed. This is followed by a comprehensive treatment of the individual, relevant test areas for the characterization and qualification of plastics and plastic molded parts made from them, with descriptions of the corresponding, practical test methods. A comprehensive index provides easy access to relevant information for successful engineering with plastics and suitable methods for material characterization and for quality assurance and damage analysis of parts.

Written by experienced academics and industrial researchers and developers who know the problems of plastics engineers in their daily work - and the solutions - inside out, this book offers first-hand practical knowledge and intensive discussion. The book is aimed at industry, scientists and students involved in plastics and plastic engineering and aims to help them gain the necessary understanding of polymer materials and knowledge of practical testing and evaluation of plastics.

1 Introduction to Plastics 1
1.1 Plastics 1
1.2 Structure and Behaviour of Plastics 5
1.3 Melting Polymers 12
1.4 Mechanical Behaviour of Polymers 15
1.5 Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behaviour 28
1.6 Resins 37
1.7 Material Selection 39
1.8 Processing of Polymers 40
 
2 Polymer Testing 45
2.1 Introduction 45
2.2 Objective of Polymer Testing 45
2.3 Sample Preparation and Test Procedure 48
 
2.4 Sample Extraction/Sampling 49 
2.5 Types of Samples 50 
2.6 Test Implementation/Operation/Accomplishment 51
2.7 Description of Test Results/Test Report 51 
 
3 Identi¿cation of Polymers  53 
3.1 Introduction 53 
3.2 Density Measurement 53 
3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 58 
 
4 Rheological Testing 65 
4.1 Introduction 65 
4.2 Rheometry 70 
4.3 Viscometry 77 
 
5 Mechanical Testing 87
5.1 Introduction 87
5.2 Quasi-Static Loading 88
5.3 Impact Loading 113
 
5.4 Long-Term Static Loading 120 
5.5 Long-Term Dynamic Loading - Fatigue 126 
 
6 Tribological Testing 133 
6.1 Introduction 133 
6.2 Sliding Behaviour 134 
6.3 Friction Coe¿cient 135 
6.4 Wear 136 
 
7 Thermal Testing 139 
7.1 Introduction 139 
7.2 Tests Under Thermal Loading 141 
7.3 Thermal Ageing Behaviour 144 
7.4 Di¿erential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 144 
7.5 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 152 
7.6 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 158 
7.7 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) - Dilatometry 161
7.8 Calcination Test 164 
7.9 Thermal Dimensional Stability 166 
7.10 Heat De¿ection Temperature 169 
 
8 Chemical Testing 173
8.1 Introduction 173
8.2 Chemical Resistance Investigation 173
8.3 Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance (ESCR) Investigation 174
 
9 Physical Testing 181
9.1 Introduction 181
9.2 Determination of Mass 181
9.3 Determination of Water Absorption 182
 
10 Geometrical Inspection 187
10.1 Introduction 187
10.2 Sizes and Tolerances 187
10.3 Processing and Post-processing Shrinkage 195
10.4 Warpage 197
 
11 Optical Testing Methods 199
11.1 Introduction 199
11.2 Visual Inspection 199
11.3 Light Microscope (LM) 201
11.4 Digital Microscope (DM) 207
11.5 Scanning Electron Beam Microscope (SEM) 208
11.6 Polarized Light Inspection 212
1 Introduction to Plastics 1
1.1 Plastics 1
1.2 Structure and Behaviour of Plastics 5
1.3 Melting Polymers 12
1.4 Mechanical Behaviour of Polymers 15
1.5 Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behaviour 28
1.6 Resins 37
1.7 Material Selection 39
1.8 Processing of Polymers 40
 
2 Polymer Testing 45
2.1 Introduction 45
2.2 Objective of Polymer Testing 45
2.3 Sample Preparation and Test Procedure 48
 
2.4 Sample Extraction/Sampling 49 
2.5 Types of Samples 50 
2.6 Test Implementation/Operation/Accomplishment 51
2.7 Description of Test Results/Test Report 51 
 
3 Identi¿cation of Polymers  53 
3.1 Introduction 53 
3.2 Density Measurement 53 
3.3 Infrared Spectroscopy 58 
 
4 Rheological Testing 65 
4.1 Introduction 65 
4.2 Rheometry 70 
4.3 Viscometry 77 
 
5 Mechanical Testing 87
5.1 Introduction 87
5.2 Quasi-Static Loading 88
5.3 Impact Loading 113
 
5.4 Long-Term Static Loading 120 
5.5 Long-Term Dynamic Loading - Fatigue 126 
 
6 Tribological Testing 133 
6.1 Introduction 133 
6.2 Sliding Behaviour 134 
6.3 Friction Coe¿cient 135 
6.4 Wear 136 
 
7 Thermal Testing 139 
7.1 Introduction 139 
7.2 Tests Under Thermal Loading 141 
7.3 Thermal Ageing Behaviour 144 
7.4 Di¿erential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) 144 
7.5 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 152 
7.6 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 158 
7.7 Thermomechanical Analysis (TMA) - Dilatometry 161
7.8 Calcination Test 164 
7.9 Thermal Dimensional Stability 166 
7.10 Heat De¿ection Temperature 169 
 
8 Chemical Testing 173
8.1 Introduction 173
8.2 Chemical Resistance Investigation 173
8.3 Environmental Stress Cracking Resistance (ESCR) Investigation 174
 
9 Physical Testing 181
9.1 Introduction 181
9.2 Determination of Mass 181
9.3 Determination of Water Absorption 182
 
10 Geometrical Inspection 187
10.1 Introduction 187
10.2 Sizes and Tolerances 187
10.3 Processing and Post-processing Shrinkage 195
10.4 Warpage 197
 
11 Optical Testing Methods 199
11.1 Introduction 199
11.2 Visual Inspection 199
11.3 Light Microscope (LM) 201
11.4 Digital Microscope (DM) 207
11.5 Scanning Electron Beam Microscope (SEM) 208
11.6 Polarized Light Inspection 212