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Practical Veterinary Urinalysis

Carolyn A. Sink, Nicole M. Weinstein

ISBN: 978-1-119-94602-1 December 2011 Wiley-Blackwell 180 Pages


Practical Veterinary Urinalysis is a comprehensive, clinically relevant resource for the veterinary laboratory. This bench-top guide covers sample handling guidelines, interpretation of dry chemical analysis, and recommendations for physical and microscopic evaluation. Emphasizing diagnostic techniques and result interpretation, Practical Veterinary Urinalysis is an ideal aid for anyone who performs and interprets urinalysis testing.

Beginning with an overview of renal physiology and urine production, the main focus of the book is examination and analysis of urine samples, including physical properties, chemical analysis, and sediment examination. Additional chapters review diagnostic tests and considerations for proteinuria, advanced diagnostics, quality assurance and laboratory set-up. Practical Veterinary Urinalysis is an invaluable tool for achieving accurate and reliable laboratory results and is a useful addition to any veterinary library.

Preface and Acknowledgments ix

Chapter 1 Functional Renal Physiology and Urine Production 1

Glomerular filtration 1

Tubular reabsorption and secretion 3

Collecting tubules 5

Renal function and measures of renal function 5

Laboratory assessment of renal function 6

Chapter 2 Specimen Procurement 9

Laboratory definitions for collection methods 9

Urine specimen containers 12

Specimen handling and preservation 15

Types of urine specimens 16

Chapter 3 Routine Urinalysis: Physical Properties 19

Solute concentration 19

Urine color 25

Chapter 4 Routine Urinalysis: Chemical Analysis 29

pH 29

Protein 32

Glucose 38

Ketone 40

Blood 42

Bilirubin 45

Urobilinogen 48

Nitrite 49

Leukocyte esterase 50

Specific gravity 51

Chapter 5 Routine Urinalysis: Microscopic Elements 55

Urine sediment preparation 55

Examination of urine sediment 57

Microscopic elements of urine sediment 59

Chapter 6 Proteinuria 113

Protein handling by the kidney 113

Significance of proteinuria 116

Laboratory diagnosis of proteinuria 117

Recommendations regarding diagnosis of proteinuria 126

Additional considerations for proteinuria 126

Chapter 7 Advanced Diagnostics 133

Detection of bacteriuria versus diagnosis of urinary tract infection 133

Urinary tract cytology 136

Fractional excretion 147

Urinary biomarkers 149

Chapter 8 Laboratory Quality Assurance 155

Physical requirements of the laboratory 155

Laboratory equipment 157

Reagents and supplies for the urinalysis laboratory 160

Laboratory waste 160

Quality control in the urinalysis laboratory 161

Procedure manuals 163

Index 165

“Overall, this book is reasonably priced and will be a useful and relevant addition to any laboratory or veterinary medical library, with valuable information for both veterinarians and veterinary technicians.”  (Journal of The American Veterinary Medical Association, 16 September 2012)

“A 'must' for any vet's reference and for veterinary students.”  (Midwest Book Review, 1 July 2012)

“This book would be a great addition to any practice to encourage the use of urinalysis.”  (Veterinary Record, 28 July 2012)

  • Reviews renal function and urine formation to better understand urinalysis results
  • Provides procedural information for accurate and efficient urinalysis testing
  • Explains analytical methodologies of individual urine dipstick tests
  • Includes many high-quality images for identification of formed elements in urine sediment
  • Incorporates easy-to-use diagnostic algorithms and reference tables
  • Presents concise, comprehensive guidelines for veterinary professionals