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Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure / Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM)

Principles and Practice of Variable Pressure / Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM)

Debbie Stokes

ISBN: 978-0-470-75873-1 November 2008 234 Pages


  • Offers a simple starting point to VPSEM, especially for new users, technicians and students containing clear, concise explanations
  • Crucially, the principles and applications outlined in this book are completely generic: i.e. applicable to all types of VPSEM, irrespective of manufacturer.
  • Information presented will enable reader to turn principles into practice
  • Published in association with the Royal Microscopical Society (RMS)


Chapter 1 -A brief historical overview

1.1 Scanning electron microscopy

1.2 The development of imaging in a gas environment

Chapter 2 -Principles of SEM

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Electron sources

2.3 Electron optics

2.4 Signals and detection

2.5 Practical aspects of electron beam irradiation

2.6 the sem in operation


Chapter 3 -General principles of VP-ESEM: utilising a gas

3.1 Introduction

3.2 VP-ESEM instrumentation

3.3 Signal generation in a gas

3.4 Imaging with water vapour 


Chapter 4 -Imaging and analysis in the VP-ESEM: the influence of a gas

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Background to theoretical calculations 

4.3 Which gas?

4.4 Exploring the gas path length

4.5 How much gas?

4.6 X-ray microanalysis in the VP-ESEM


Chapter 5 -Imaging uncoated specimens in the VP-ESEM

 5.1 Introduction

5.2 Electronic structure

5.3 Factors affecting secondary electron emission

5.4 The influence of the specimen on the system

5.5 Time- and temperature-dependent effects

5.6 imaging soft materials

5.7 Effects of ions on imaging

5.8 Imaging with a gas: summary


Chapter 6 -A lab in a chamber – in situ methods in VP-ESEM and other applications

 6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nanocharacterisation of insulating materials

6.3 In situ experiments

6.4 Other applications