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Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice

Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice

George DeLancey

ISBN: 978-1-118-61278-1

May 2013

456 pages

$149.99

Description

Enables chemical engineering students to bridge theory and practice

Integrating scientific principles with practical engineering experience, this text enables readers to master the fundamentals of chemical processing and apply their knowledge of such topics as material and energy balances, transport phenomena, reactor design, and separations across a broad range of chemical industries. The author skillfully guides readers step by step through the execution of both chemical process analysis and equipment design.

Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice is divided into two sections: the Macroscopic View and the Microscopic View. The Macroscopic View examines equipment design and behavior from the vantage point of inlet and outlet conditions. The Microscopic View is focused on the equipment interior resulting from conditions prevailing at the equipment boundaries. As readers progress through the text, they'll learn to master such chemical engineering operations and equipment as:

  • Separators to divide a mixture into parts with desirable concentrations
  • Reactors to produce chemicals with needed properties
  • Pressure changers to create favorable equilibrium and rate conditions
  • Temperature changers and heat exchangers to regulate and change the temperature of process streams

Throughout the book, the author sets forth examples that refer to a detailed simulation of a process for the manufacture of acrylic acid that provides a unifying thread for equipment sizing in context. The manufacture of hexyl glucoside provides a thread for process design and synthesis.

Presenting basic thermodynamics, Principles of Chemical Engineering Practice enables students in chemical engineering and related disciplines to master and apply the fundamentals and to proceed to more advanced studies in chemical engineering.

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PREFACE xix

PART I MACROSCOPIC VIEW 1

1 Chemical Process Perspective 3

1.1 Some Basic Concepts in Chemical Processing, 3

1.2 Acrylic Acid Production, 5

1.3 Biocatalytic Processes—Enzymatic Systems, 21

1.4 Basic Database, 24

Problems, 26

2 Macroscopic Mass Balances 28

2.1 Chemical Processing Systems, 28

2.2 Steady-State Mass Balances Without Chemical Reactions, 37

2.3 Steady-State Mass Balances with Single Chemical Reactions, 41

2.4 Steady-State Mass Balances with Multiple Chemical Reactions, 46

3 Macroscopic Energy and Entropy Balances 53

3.1 Basic Thermodynamic Functions, 53

3.2 Evaluation of H and S for Pure Materials, 55

3.3 Evaluation of H and S Functions for Mixtures, 59

3.4 Energy Flows and the First Law, 62

3.5 Energy Balances Without Reaction, 64

3.6 Energy Balances with Reaction-Ideal Solution, 70

3.7 Entropy Balances, 77

4 Macroscopic Momentum and Mechanical Energy Balances 86

4.1 Momentum Balance, 86

4.2 Mechanical Energy Balance, 88

4.3 Applications to Incompressible Flow Systems, 89

5 Completely Mixed Systems—Equipment Considerations 95

5.1 Mixing and Residence Time Distributions—Definitions, 95

5.2 Measurement and Interpretation of Residence Time Distributions, 97

5.3 Basic Aspects of Stirred Tank Design, 99

6 Separation and Reaction Processes in Completely Mixed Systems 107

6.1 Phase Equilibrium: Single-Stage Separation Operations, 107

6.2 Gas–Liquid Operations, 109

6.3 Flash Vaporization, 133

6.4 Liquid–Liquid Extraction, 145

6.5 Adsorption, 151

6.6 Single-Phase Stirred Tank Reactors, 159

6.7 Chemical Reaction Equilibrium, 174

PART II MICROSCOPIC VIEW 181

7 Multistage Separation and Reactor Operations 183

7.1 Absorption and Stripping, 183

7.2 Distillation, 200

7.3 Liquid–Liquid Extraction, 221

7.4 Multiple Reactor Stages, 235

7.5 Staged Fixed-Bed Converters for Exothermic Gas Phase Reaction, 238

8 Microscopic Equations of Change 243

8.1 Mass Flux: Average Velocities and Diffusion, 244

8.2 Momentum Flux: Stress Tensor, 249

8.3 Energy Flux: Conduction, 250

8.4 Balance Equations, 251

8.5 Entropy Balance and Flux Expressions, 254

8.6 Turbulence, 265

8.7 Application of Balance Equations, 269

9 Nonturbulent Isothermal Momentum Transfer 276

9.1 Rectangular Models, 276

9.2 Cylindrical Systems, 280

9.3 Spherical Systems, 287

9.4 Microfluidics—Gas Phase Systems, 289

10 Nonturbulent Isothermal Mass Transfer 296

10.1 Membranes, 296

10.2 Diffusion Models for Porous Solids, 307

10.3 Heterogeneous Catalysis, 311

10.4 Transient Adsorption by Porous Solid, 316

10.5 Diffusion with Laminar Flow, 318

11 Energy Transfer Under Nonturbulent Conditions 324

11.1 Conduction in Solids–Composite Walls, 325

11.2 Thermal Effects in Porous Catalysts, 327

11.3 Heat Transfer to Falling Film—Short Contact Times, 330

11.4 Moving Boundary Problem, 332

12 Isothermal Mass Transfer Under Turbulent Conditions 335

12.1 Intraphase Mass Transfer Coefficients, 335

12.2 Interphase Mass Transfer Coefficients—Controlling Resistances, 338

12.3 Measurement and Correlation of Mass Transfer Coefficients, 339

12.4 Fixed Beds, 342

12.5 Pipes, 345

12.7 Packed Towers—Gas Absorption, 349

12.8 Applification of Experimental Mass Transfer Coefficients, 357

13 Interphase Momentum Transfer Under Turbulent Conditions 367

13.1 Pressure Drop in Conduits and Fixed Beds, 368

13.2 Flow Over Submerged Spheres, 376

14 Interphase Energy Transfer Under Turbulent Conditions 384

14.1 Heat Transfer Coefficients—Analogy with Mass Transfer, 384

14.2 Heat Exchangers, 385

14.3 Multi-Tubular Catalytic Reactors, 395

15 Microscopic to Macroscopic 400

15.1 Macroscopic Mass Balance, 400

15.2 Macroscopic Energy Balance, 401

15.3 Macroscopic Mechanical Energy Balance, 402

APPENDIX A PERIODIC TABLE 405

APPENDIX B CONVERSION FACTORS 406

APPENDIX C PARTIAL DATABASE FOR ACRYLIC ACID PROCESS 409

APPENDIX D SOME MATHEMATICAL RESULTS 414

APPENDIX E MASS BALANCE IN CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES AND LAMINAR FLOW IN Z DIRECTION 418

NOMENCLATURE 419

REFERENCES 423

INDEX 427

“The author, a professor emeritus of chemical engineering at Stevens Institute of Technology, guides readers step by step through the execution of both chemical process analysis and equipment design, allowing readers to master such chemical engineering operations and equipment as separators, reactors, heat exchangers, and more.”  (Chemical Engineering Progress, 1 September 2013)