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Principles of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Buildings

Principles of Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Buildings

John W. Mitchell, James E. Braun

ISBN: 978-1-118-81241-9

Jul 2013

624 pages



Principles of HVAC in Buildings by J. W. Mitchell and J. E. Braun provides foundational knowledge for the behavior and analysis of HVAC systems and related devices.  The emphasis is on the application of engineering principles, and features a tight integration of physical descriptions with a software program that allows performance to be directly calculated, with results that provide insight into actual behavior.  The examples, end-of-chapter problems, and design projects are more than exercises; they represent situations that an engineer might face in practice and are selected to illustrate the complex and integrated nature of an HVAC system or piece of equipment.  Coverage of material applicable to the field is broad: a Fundamentals section on thermodynamics, fluid flow, heat transfer, and psychrometrics; types of HVAC systems and components; comfort and air quality criteria; a Loads section on weather data processing; design heating and cooling loads; an Equipment section on air and water distribution systems, heating and cooling coils, cooling towers, refrigeration equipment, and a Design and Control section on seasonal energy use, control techniques, supervisory control, the HVAC design process, and the rules of thumb often used in design.  The textbook provides a foundation for students and practicing engineers to design HVAC systems for buildings.  In addition, there is extensive supplemental on-line material that provides more in-depth and comprehensive treatment of equipment and component modeling and performance that is geared towards current and future equipment design engineers.

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1. Introduction to Air-Conditioning Systems

1.1 Systems and definitions

1.2 History of air conditioning.

1.3 Trends in energy use and impact

1.4 HVAC system design and operation

1.5 Energy costs

1.6 Book philosophy and organization

1.7 Summary

1.8 Problems

1.9 References

2. System Analysis Techniques and the Use of EES

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Introduction to EES

2.3 Common problems encountered when using EES

2.4 Curve Fitting Using EES

2.5 Optimization using EES

2.6 How to Successfully Solve Problems using EES

2.7 Summary

2.8 Nomenclature

2.9 References

2.10 Problems

3. Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow in HVAC Applications

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Conservation of mass

3.3 Conservation of energy

3.4 Thermodynamic properties of pure substances

3.5 Thermodynamic limits on performance

3.6 Thermodynamic work relations for pure substances

3.7 Thermodynamic relations for fluid flow

3.8 Energy loss mechanisms in fluid flow

3.9 Summary

3.10 Nomenclature

3.11 References

3.12 Problems

4. Heat Transfer in HVAC Applications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Conduction heat transfer

4.3 Convection heat transfer

4.4 Thermal radiation heat transfer

4.5 Transient heat transfer

4.6 Combined mode heat transfer

4.7 Summary

4.8 Nomenclature

4.9 References

4.10 Problems

5. Psychrometrics for HVAC Applications

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Moist air properties

5.3 Psychrometric chart

5.4 Standard atmosphere

5.5 Determining psychrometric properties using EES

5.6 Psychrometric applications

5.7 Heat and mass transfer for air-water vapor mixtures

5.8 Summary

5.9 Nomenclature

5.10 References

5.11 Problems

6. Overview of HVAC Systems

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Overview of HVAC systems and components

6.3 Energy comparisons for CAV and VAV systems

6.4 HVAC system performance calculations

6.5 ASHRAE load calculation equations

6.6 HVAC system improvements and alternatives

6.7 Summary

6.8 Nomenclature

6.9 References

6.10 Problems

7. Thermal Comfort and Air Quality

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Criteria for occupant comfort inside buildings

7.3 Criteria for indoor air quality

7.4 Summary

7.5 Nomenclature

7.6 References

7.7 Problems

Building Heating and Cooling Loads

8. Weather Data, Statistics, and Processing

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Design temperature parameters for HVAC systems

8.3 Ambient temperature and humidity correlations

8.4 Degree day data and correlations

8.5 Bin method data

8.6 Ground temperature correlations

8.7 Solar radiation fundamentals

8.8 Clear sky solar radiation

8.9 Weather records

8.10 Summary

8.11 Nomenclature

8.12 References

8.13 Problems

9. Components of Building Heat Loss and Gain

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Thermal resistance and conductance of building elements

9.3 Heat flow through opaque exterior surfaces

9.4 Transient heat flow through building elements

9.5 Heat flow through building elements  – Transfer function approach

9.6 Heat flow through building elements – Lumped parameter approach

9.7 Heat flow through glazing

9.8 Energy flows due to infiltration and ventilation

9.9 Internal thermal gains

9.10 Summary

9.11 Nomenclature

9.12 References

9.13 Problems

10. Heating and Cooling Loads

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Design heating load

10.3 Design sensible cooling load using the heat balance method

10.4 The heat balance method using the lumped parameter approach

10.5 Design latent cooling load

10.6 Design loads using the lumped parameter method

10.7 Summary

10.8 Nomenclature

10.9 References

10.10 Problems


11. Air Distribution Systems

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Pressure drops in duct systems

11.3 Design methods for air distribution systems

11.4 Fan characteristics

11.5 Interaction between fan and distribution system

11.6 Air Distribution in zones

11.7 Heat losses and gains for ducts

11.8 Air leakage from ducts

11.9 Summary

11.10 Nomenclature

11.11 References

11.12 Problems

12. Liquid Distribution Systems

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Water distribution systems

12.3 Steam distribution systems

12.4 Pump characteristics

12.5 Heat loss and gain for pipes

12.6 Summary

12.7 Nomenclature

12.8 References

12.9 Problems

13. Heat Exchangers for Heating and Cooling Applications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Overall heat transfer conductance

13.3 Heat exchanger thermal performance

13.4 Heating coil selection process

13.5 Cooling coil processes

13.6 Cooling coil performance using an analogy to heat transfer

13.7 Cooling coil selection procedure

13.8 Summary

13.9 Nomenclature

13.10 References

13.11 Problems

14. Cooling Towers and Desiccant Dehumidification Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Cooling towers

14.3 Cooling tower performance using an analogy to heat transfer

14.4 Cooling tower selection procedure

14.5 Desiccant dehumidifiers

14.6 Desiccant dehumidification systems

14.7 Summary

14.8 Nomenclature

14.9 References

14.10 Problems

15. Vapor-Compression Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Vapor compression system

15.3 Refrigerants

15.4 Vapor compression system compressors

15.5 Vapor compression system performance

15.6 Alternate vapor compression system concepts

15.7 Summary

15.8 Nomenclature

15.9 References

15.10 Problems

16. Heat Pump Systems

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Air source heat pumps

16.3 Ground source heat pumps

16.4 Water loop heat pump systems

16.5 Summary

16.6 Nomenclature

16.7 Problems


17. Thermal Storage Systems

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Ice storage systems

17.3 Chilled water storage systems

17.4 Cold air distribution systems

17.5 Building thermal storage

17.6 Thermal storage control strategies

17.7 Performance characteristics of ice storage tanks

17.8 Selection of ice storage capacity

17.9 Summary

17.10 Nomenclature

17.11 References

17.12 Problems

Design and Control of HVAC Systems

18. Building and HVAC Energy Use

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Weather Data for Energy Use Calculations

18.3 Degree-day Method for Estimation of Heating Energy Use

18.4 Bin Method for Estimating Energy Use

18.5 Simulation Methods for Estimating Energy Use

18.6 The Lumped Capacitance Method for Estimating Building Energy Use

18.7 Summary

18.8 Nomenclature

18.9 References

18.10 Problems

19. HVAC Control Principles

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Feedback control techniques

19.3 Implementation of local loop control

19.4 Advanced control techniques

19.5 Summary

19.6 Nomenclature

19.7 References

19.8 Problems

20. Supervisory Control

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Introduction to optimal operation of HVAC systems

20.3 Optimization statement for all-electric cooling plants without storage

20.4 Model-based optimization procedure

20.5 Quadratic optimization procedure  

20.6 Simplified control strategies for system components

20.7 Optimization statement for all-electric cooling plants with storage

20.8 Simplified control strategies for systems with storage

20.9 Methods for forecasting building loads

20.10 Summary

20.11 Nomenclature

20.12 References

20.13 Problems

21. Designing HVAC Systems

21.1 Introduction

21.2 The Design Process for HVAC Systems

21.3 Life-cycle cost concept

21.4 Rules of Thumb

21.5 References

21.6 Design problems

  • Application of fundamental principles to develop performance relations for HVAC systems and equipment that provides insight and understanding of actual behavior.
  • Broad coverage of loads, systems, and equipment that prepares students for careers in many varied aspects of the HVAC field.
  • Readily implemented building load calculation procedure that capture dynamics and facilitates HVAC system analysis
  • Realistic design examples and problems that reflect current engineering practice.
  • Examples and problem solutions implemented with an interpretive language equation solver (EES) that allows students to focus on physical descriptions and results.