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Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, 6th Edition

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Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, 6th Edition

Fred L. Mannering, Scott S. Washburn

ISBN: 978-1-119-29933-2 September 2016 416 Pages

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Description

The best-selling, newly updated Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, 6th Edition provides the depth of coverage necessary to solve the highway-related problems that are most likely to be encountered in engineering practice. The focus on highway transportation is appropriate in light of the dominance of the highway mode in the U.S. and available employment opportunities. Instructors can be confident their students are learning the fundamentals needed to undertake upper-level transportation courses, enter transportation employment with a basic knowledge of highway and traffic engineering, and answer transportation-related questions on the Fundamentals of Civil Engineering and Professional Engineering exams.

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Preface v

Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Highways and the Economy 2

1.2.1 The Highway Economy 2

1.2.2 Supply Chains 2

1.2.3 Economic Development 3

1.3 Highways, Energy, the Environment, and Climate Change 3

1.4 Highways as Part of the Transportation System 3

1.5 Highway Transportation and the Human Element 4

1.5.1 Passenger Transportation Modes and Traffic Congestion 4

1.5.2 Highway Safety 5

1.5.3 Demographic Trends 6

1.6 Highways and Evolving Technologies 6

1.6.1 Infrastructure Technologies 6

1.6.2 Traffic Control Technologies 7

1.6.3 Vehicle and Autonomous Vehicle Technologies 8

1.7 Scope of Study 9

Chapter 2 Road Vehicle Performance 11

2.1 Introduction 11

2.2 Tractive Effort and Resistance 11

2.3 Aerodynamic Resistance 12

2.4 Rolling Resistance 15

2.5 Grade Resistance 17

2.6 Available Tractive Effort 18

2.6.1 Maximum Tractive Effort 18

2.6.2 Engine-Generated Tractive Effort 21

2.7 Vehicle Acceleration 25

2.8 Fuel Efficiency 29

2.9 Principles of Braking 30

2.9.1 Braking Forces 30

2.9.2 Braking Force Ratio and Efficiency 32

2.9.3 Antilock Braking Systems 35

2.9.4 Theoretical Stopping Distance 35

2.9.5 Practical Stopping Distance 39

2.9.6 Distance Traveled During Driver Perception/Reaction 42

2.10 Practice Problems 45

Chapter 3 Geometric Design of Highways 57

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Principles of Highway Alignment 58

3.3 Vertical Alignment 59

3.3.1 Vertical Curve Fundamentals 61

3.3.2 Stopping Sight Distance 69

3.3.3 Stopping Sight Distance and Crest Vertical Curve Design 70

3.3.4 Stopping Sight Distance and Sag Vertical Curve Design 74

3.3.5 Passing Sight Distance and Crest Vertical Curve Design 82

3.3.6 Underpass Sight Distance and Sag Vertical Curve Design 85

3.4 Horizontal Alignment 88

3.4.1 Vehicle Cornering 88

3.4.2 Horizontal Curve Fundamentals 90

3.4.3 Stopping Sight Distance and Horizontal Curve Design 94

3.5 Combined Vertical and Horizontal Alignment 96

3.6 Practice Problems 102

Chapter 4 Pavement Design 117

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Pavement Types 117

4.2.1 Flexible Pavements 118

4.2.2 Rigid Pavements 119

4.3 Pavement System Design: Principles for Flexible Pavements 119

4.4 Traditional AASHTO Flexible-Pavement Design Procedure 120

4.4.1 Serviceability Concept 121

4.4.2 Flexible-Pavement Design Equation 121

4.4.3 Structural Number 128

4.5 Pavement System Design: Principles for Rigid Pavements 132

4.6 Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement Design Procedure 133

4.7 Design-Lane Loads 142

4.8 Measuring Pavement Quality and Performance 147

4.8.1 International Roughness Index 147

4.8.2 Friction Measurements 148

4.8.3 Rut Depth 149

4.8.4 Cracking 149

4.8.5 Faulting 150

4.8.6 Punchouts 150

4.9 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design 150

4.10 Practice Problems 152

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Traffic Flow and Queuing Theory 165

5.1 Introduction 165

5.2 Traffic Stream Parameters 165

5.2.1 Traffic Flow, Speed, and Density 166

5.3 Basic Traffic Stream Models 171

5.3.1 Speed-Density Model 171

5.3.2 Flow-Density Model 173

5.3.3 Speed-Flow Model 174

5.4 Models of Traffic Flow 176

5.4.1 Poisson Model 176

5.4.2 Limitations of the Poisson Model 180

5.5 Queuing Theory and Traffic Flow Analysis 181

5.5.1 Dimensions of Queuing Models 181

5.5.2 D/D/1 Queuing 182

5.5.3 M/D/1 Queuing 189

5.5.4 M/M/1 Queuing 191

5.5.5 M/M/N Queuing 192

5.6 Traffic Analysis at Highway Bottlenecks 195

5.7 Impact of Autonomous Vehicles 198

5.8 Practice Problems 200

Chapter 6 Highway Capacity and Level-of-Service Analysis 211

6.1 Introduction 211

6.2 Level-of-Service Concept 212

6.3 Level-of-Service Determination 215

6.3.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 215

6.3.2 Determine Free-Flow Speed 215

6.3.3 Determine Analysis Flow Rate 216

6.3.4 Calculate Service Measure(s) and Determine LOS 216

6.4 Basic Freeway Segments 216

6.4.1 Speed versus Flow Rate Relationship 216

6.4.2 Base Conditions and Capacity 218

6.4.3 Service Measure 218

6.4.4 Determine Free-Flow Speed 221

6.4.5 Determine Analysis Flow Rate 222

6.4.6 Calculate Density and Determine LOS 228

6.5 Multilane Highway Segments 231

6.5.1 Speed versus Flow Rate Relationship 232

6.5.2 Base Conditions and Capacity 235

6.5.3 Service Measure 235

6.5.4 Determining Free-Flow Speed 235

6.5.5 Determining Analysis Flow Rate 237

6.5.6 Calculate Density and Determine LOS 237

6.6 Two-Lane Highways 241

6.6.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 241

6.6.2 Service Measures 242

6.6.3 Determine Free-Flow Speed 243

6.6.4 Determine Analysis Flow Rate 244

6.6.5 Calculate Service Measures 246

6.6.6 Determine LOS 250

6.7 Design Traffic Volumes 253

6.8 Practice Problems 258

Chapter 7 Traffic Control and Analysis at Signalized Intersections 269

7.1 Introduction 269

7.2 Intersection and Signal Control Characteristics 270

7.2.1 Actuated Control 273

7.2.2 Signal Controller Operation 276

7.3 Traffic Flow Fundamentals for Signalized Intersections 279

7.4 Development of a Traffic Signal Phasing and Timing Plan 282

7.4.1 Select Signal Phasing 283

7.4.2 Establish Analysis Lane Groups 287

7.4.3 Calculate Analysis Flow Rates and Adjusted Saturation Flow Rates 289

7.4.4 Determine Critical Lane Groups and Total Cycle Lost Time 289

7.4.5 Calculate Cycle Length 292

7.4.6 Allocate Green Time 294

7.4.7 Calculate Change and Clearance Intervals 296

7.4.8 Check Pedestrian Crossing Time 298

7.5 Analysis of Traffic at Signalized Intersections 299

7.5.1 Signalized Intersection Analysis with D/D/1 Queuing 300

7.5.2 Signal Coordination 307

7.5.3 Control Delay Calculation for Level of Service Analysis 315

7.5.4 Level-of-Service Determination 320

7.6 Practice Problems 325

Chapter 8 Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting 341

8.1 Introduction 341

8.2 Traveler Decisions 343

8.3 Scope of the Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting Problem 343

8.4 Trip Generation 346

8.4.1 Typical Trip Generation Models 347

8.4.2 Trip Generation with Count Data Models 350

8.5 Mode and Destination Choice 352

8.5.1 Methodological Approach 352

8.5.2 Logit Model Applications 354

8.6 Highway Route Choice 359

8.6.1 Highway Performance Functions 360

8.6.2 User Equilibrium 361

8.6.3 Mathematical Programming Approach to User Equilibrium 366

8.6.4 System Optimization 367

8.7 Autonomous Vehicles, Highway Performance Functions, and System Optimization 371

8.8 Traffic Forecasting in Practice 372

8.9 The Traditional Four-Step Process 376

8.10 The Current State of Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting 377

8.11 Practice Problems 378

Appendix 8A Least Squares Estimation 382

Appendix 8B Maximum-Likelihood Estimation 384

Index 393

  • New standards updates. All chapters are updated to the latest design/evaluation standards including the 2016 Highway Capacity Manual.
  • New pedagogical approach: practice problems. This new pedagogical feature significantly improves the effectiveness of the text. The new practice problems are challenging, and are designed to improve student comprehension and confidence.
  • New example and end-of-chapter problems. Many new example and end-of chapter problems have been added to further improve the pedagogical effectiveness of the book.
  • New autonomous vehicle problems. To introduce students to the topic of autonomous vehicles and the potential benefits of this emerging technology, several examples on this topic have been added.

Resources and Support

Instructor Resources

  • Solutions Manual. Solutions to selected problems for each chapter are available via password to the Wiley instructors’ site, along with instructions for obtaining solutions to all the problems in the book.
  • Lecture Slides. The authors provide a complete set of lecture slides as well as slides of all the figures and tables in the text.
  • In-Class Design Problems. The authors have developed design problems for in-class use by students in a cooperative learning context. These problems support the material presented in the chapters and the end-of-chapter problems.
  • Sample Exams. The authors have prepared sample midterm and final exams to give instructors class-proven ideas relating to successful exam format and problems.


Update:

The solutions manual to the 6th edition of Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis textbook is a stand-alone Windows program.  The solutions manual program is now exclusively distributed through the Microsoft Store.  The program is available to anyone for a price of $24.99.  The Microsoft Store link for the solutions manual is:

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/store/p/solutions-manual-viewer/9nblggh43z4t


Note that the solutions manual program only runs on Windows 10, version 1607 or higher.  Version 1607 is also known as the Windows 10 Anniversary Update.   To check which version of Windows your computer is running, run the ‘winver’ command by typing it into the search bar.  To get the latest version of Windows, either run updates from the control panel settings or go to https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/software-download/windows10

Note that the Microsoft Store will not allow you to download the program if you do not have a compatible version of Windows installed on your computer.  Also note that the size of the download file is approximately 90 MB.  It may take a couple of minutes to download, depending on the speed of your internet connection.

Instructors who adopt the textbook for their class are eligible to obtain the solutions manual program for free.  To obtain a code that will allow you to download the solutions manual for free, Email your request to Dr. Scott Washburn at swash@ce.ufl.edu, along with proof of your textbook adoption (e.g., a link to your bookstore adoption web page or Email confirmation from your local Wiley representative).

  • Complete instructor support includes lecture slides, sample exams, in-class design problems, and solutions manual.
  • A concise approach focused on highway transportation helps instructors cover in one semester the concepts that are most likely to be encountered in engineering practice.
  • Example-oriented presentation is accessible to both junior and senior engineering students, with appropriate mathematical rigor and a large number of end-of-chapter problems.
  • Sample FE exam questions in the text give students practice with questions for this discipline in a multiple-choice format similar to what they’ll see on the FE exam.
  • Illustrated variable and nomenclature keys at the end of chapters help students more quickly become familiar with the terminology and notation for the course.