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Principles of Tribology, 2nd Edition

Principles of Tribology, 2nd Edition

Shizhu Wen , Ping Huang

ISBN: 978-1-119-21491-5

May 2017

608 pages

Description

Updated to include the timely and important topics of MEMS and rolling friction, Principles of Tribology is a compilation of current developments from tribology research, coupled with tribology fundamentals and applications. Essential topics include lubrication theory, lubrication design, friction mechanism, wear mechanism, friction control, and their applications. Besides classical tribology content, the book also covers intersecting research areas of tribology, as well as the regularities and characteristics of the tribological phenomena in practice. Furthermore, it presents the basic theory, numerical analysis methods and experimental measuring techniques of tribology as well as their application in engineering.  

  • Newly expanded and updated to include new tribological material on MEMS and green tribology, its key concepts and applications
  • Systematically brings the reader through fundamental theories, basic mechanisms through to the latest research
  • Emphasizes practical tribological phenomena, supported by numerical analysis and experimental measurement techniques
  • Discusses nano-tribology, thin film lubrication and its applications, topics which are growing in importance

A comprehensive look at the fundamentals and latest research, this second edition of Principles of Tribology is an essential textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students specializing in tribology and related mechanical engineering fields.

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About the Authors xxi

Second Edition Preface xxiii

Preface xxv

Introduction xxvii

Part I Lubrication Theory 1

1 Properties of Lubricants 3

1.1 Lubrication States 3

1.2 Density of Lubricant 5

1.3 Viscosity of Lubricant 7

1.3.1 Dynamic Viscosity and Kinematic Viscosity 7

1.3.1.1 Dynamic Viscosity 7

1.3.1.2 Kinematic Viscosity 8

1.3.2 Relationship between Viscosity and Temperature 9

1.3.2.1 Viscosity–Temperature Equations 9

1.3.2.2 ASTM Viscosity–Temperature Diagram 9

1.3.2.3 Viscosity Index 10

1.3.3 Relationship between Viscosity and Pressure 10

1.3.3.1 Relationships between Viscosity, Temperature and Pressure 11

1.4 Non-Newtonian Behaviors 12

1.4.1 Ree–Eyring Constitutive Equation 12

1.4.2 Visco-Plastic Constitutive Equation 13

1.4.3 Circular Constitutive Equation 13

1.4.4 Temperature-Dependent Constitutive Equation 13

1.4.5 Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 14

1.4.6 Nonlinear Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 14

1.4.7 A Simple Visco-Elastic Constitutive Equation 15

1.4.7.1 Pseudoplasticity 16

1.4.7.2 Thixotropy 16

1.5 Wettability of Lubricants 16

1.5.1 Wetting and Contact Angle 17

1.5.2 Surface Tension 17

1.6 Measurement and Conversion of Viscosity 19

1.6.1 Rotary Viscometer 19

1.6.2 Off-Body Viscometer 19

1.6.3 Capillary Viscometer 19

References 21

2 Basic Theories of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 22

2.1 Reynolds Equation 22

2.1.1 Basic Assumptions 22

2.1.2 Derivation of the Reynolds Equation 23

2.1.2.1 Force Balance 23

2.1.2.2 General Reynolds Equation 25

2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 26

2.2.1 Mechanism of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 26

2.2.2 Boundary Conditions and Initial Conditions of the Reynolds Equation 27

2.2.2.1 Boundary Conditions 27

2.2.2.2 Initial Conditions 28

2.2.3 Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 28

2.2.3.1 Load-Carrying CapacityW 28

2.2.3.2 Friction ForceF 28

2.2.3.3 Lubricant FlowQ 29

2.3 Elastic Contact Problems 29

2.3.1 Line Contact 29

2.3.1.1 Geometry and Elasticity Simulations 29

2.3.1.2 Contact Area and Stress 30

2.3.2 Point Contact 31

2.3.2.1 Geometric Relationship 31

2.3.2.2 Contact Area and Stress 32

2.4 Entrance Analysis of EHL 34

2.4.1 Elastic Deformation of Line Contacts 35

2.4.2 Reynolds Equation Considering the Effect of Pressure-Viscosity 35

2.4.3 Discussion 36

2.4.4 Grubin FilmThickness Formula 37

2.5 Grease Lubrication 38

References 40

3 Numerical Methods of Lubrication Calculation 41

3.1 Numerical Methods of Lubrication 42

3.1.1 Finite Difference Method 42

3.1.1.1 Hydrostatic Lubrication 44

3.1.1.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 44

3.1.2 Finite Element Method and Boundary Element Method 48

3.1.2.1 Finite Element Method (FEM) 48

3.1.2.2 Boundary Element Method 49

3.1.3 Numerical Techniques 51

3.1.3.1 Parameter Transformation 51

3.1.3.2 Numerical Integration 51

3.1.3.3 Empirical Formula 53

3.1.3.4 SuddenThickness Change 53

3.2 Numerical Solution of the Energy Equation 54

3.2.1 Conduction and Convection of Heat 55

3.2.1.1 Conduction Heat Hd 55

3.2.1.2 Convection Heat Hv 55

3.2.2 Energy Equation 56

3.2.3 Numerical Solution of Energy Equation 59

3.3 Numerical Solution of Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 60

3.3.1 EHL Numerical Solution of Line Contacts 60

3.3.1.1 Basic Equations 60

3.3.1.2 Solution of the Reynolds Equation 62

3.3.1.3 Calculation of Elastic Deformation 62

3.3.1.4 Dowson–Higginson FilmThickness Formula of Line Contact EHL 64

3.3.2 EHL Numerical Solution of Point Contacts 64

3.3.2.1 The Reynolds Equation 65

3.3.2.2 Elastic Deformation Equation 66

3.3.2.3 Hamrock–Dowson FilmThickness Formula of Point Contact EHL 66

3.4 Multi-Grid Method for Solving EHL Problems 68

3.4.1 Basic Principles of Multi-Grid Method 68

3.4.1.1 Grid Structure 68

3.4.1.2 Discrete Equation 68

3.4.1.3 Transformation 69

3.4.2 Nonlinear Full Approximation Scheme for the Multi-Grid Method 69

3.4.3 V andWIterations 71

3.4.4 Multi-Grid Solution of EHL Problems 71

3.4.4.1 Iteration Methods 71

3.4.4.2 Iterative Division 72

3.4.4.3 Relaxation Factors 73

3.4.4.4 Numbers of Iteration Times 73

3.4.5 Multi-Grid Integration Method 73

3.4.5.1 Transfer Pressure Downwards 74

3.4.5.2 Transfer Integral Coefficients Downwards 74

3.4.5.3 Integration on the Coarser Mesh 74

3.4.5.4 Transfer Back Integration Results 75

3.4.5.5 Modification on the Finer Mesh 75

References 76

4 Lubrication Design of Typical Mechanical Elements 78

4.1 Slider and Thrust Bearings 78

4.1.1 Basic Equations 78

4.1.1.1 Reynolds Equation 78

4.1.1.2 Boundary Conditions 78

4.1.1.3 Continuous Conditions 79

4.1.2 Solutions of Slider Lubrication 79

4.2 Journal Bearings 81

4.2.1 Axis Position and Clearance Shape 81

4.2.2 Infinitely Narrow Bearings 82

4.2.2.1 Load-Carrying Capacity 83

4.2.2.2 Deviation Angle and Axis Track 83

4.2.2.3 Flow 84

4.2.2.4 Frictional Force and Friction Coefficient 84

4.2.3 InfinitelyWide Bearings 85

4.3 Hydrostatic Bearings 88

4.3.1 Hydrostatic Thrust Plate 89

4.3.2 Hydrostatic Journal Bearings 90

4.3.3 Bearing Stiffness andThrottle 90

4.3.3.1 Constant Flow Pump 91

4.3.3.2 Capillary Throttle 91

4.3.3.3 Thin-Walled OrificeThrottle 92

4.4 Squeeze Bearings 92

4.4.1 Rectangular Plate Squeeze 93

4.4.2 Disc Squeeze 94

4.4.3 Journal Bearing Squeeze 94

4.5 Dynamic Bearings 96

4.5.1 Reynolds Equation of Dynamic Journal Bearings 96

4.5.2 Simple Dynamic Bearing Calculation 98

4.5.2.1 A Sudden Load 98

4.5.2.2 Rotating Load 99

4.5.3 General Dynamic Bearings 100

4.5.3.1 Infinitely Narrow Bearings 100

4.5.3.2 Superimposition Method of Pressures 101

4.5.3.3 Superimposition Method of Carrying Loads 101

4.6 Gas Lubrication Bearings 102

4.6.1 Basic Equations of Gas Lubrication 102

4.6.2 Types of Gas Lubrication Bearings 103

4.7 Rolling Contact Bearings 106

4.7.1 Equivalent Radius R 107

4.7.2 Average Velocity U 107

4.7.3 Carrying Load PerWidthW/b 107

4.8 Gear Lubrication 108

4.8.1 Involute Gear Transmission 109

4.8.1.1 Equivalent Curvature Radius R 110

4.8.1.2 Average Velocity U 111

4.8.1.3 Load PerWidthW/b 112

4.8.2 Arc Gear Transmission EHL 112

4.9 Cam Lubrication 114

References 116

5 Special Fluid Medium Lubrication 118

5.1 Magnetic Hydrodynamic Lubrication 118

5.1.1 Composition and Classification of Magnetic Fluids 118

5.1.2 Properties of Magnetic Fluids 119

5.1.2.1 Density of Magnetic Fluids 119

5.1.2.2 Viscosity of Magnetic Fluids 119

5.1.2.3 Magnetization Strength of Magnetic Fluids 120

5.1.2.4 Stability of Magnetic Fluids 120

5.1.3 Basic Equations of Magnetic Hydrodynamic Lubrication 121

5.1.4 Influence Factors on Magnetic EHL 123

5.2 Micro-Polar Hydrodynamic Lubrication 124

5.2.1 Basic Equations of Micro-Polar Fluid Lubrication 124

5.2.1.1 Basic Equations of Micro-Polar Fluid Mechanics 124

5.2.1.2 Reynolds Equation of Micro-Polar Fluid 125

5.2.2 Influence Factors on Micro-Polar Fluid Lubrication 128

5.2.2.1 Influence of Load 128

5.2.2.2 Main Influence Parameters of Micro-Polar Fluid 129

5.3 Liquid Crystal Lubrication 130

5.3.1 Types of Liquid Crystal 130

5.3.1.1 Tribological Properties of Lyotropic Liquid Crystal 131

5.3.1.2 Tribological Properties ofThermotropic Liquid Crystal 131

5.3.2 Deformation Analysis of Liquid Crystal Lubrication 132

5.3.3 Friction Mechanism of Liquid Crystal as a Lubricant Additive 136

5.3.3.1 Tribological Mechanism of 4-pentyl-4′-cyanobiphenyl 136

5.3.3.2 Tribological Mechanism of Cholesteryl Oleyl Carbonate 136

5.4 Electric Double Layer Effect inWater Lubrication 137

5.4.1 Electric Double Layer Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory 138

5.4.1.1 Electric Double Layer Structure 138

5.4.1.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory of Electric Double Layer 138

5.4.2 Influence of Electric Double Layer on Lubrication Properties 142

5.4.2.1 Pressure Distribution 142

5.4.2.2 Load-Carrying Capacity 143

5.4.2.3 Friction Coefficient 144

5.4.2.4 An Example 144

References 145

6 Lubrication Transformation and Nanoscale Thin Film Lubrication 147

6.1 Transformations of Lubrication States 147

6.1.1 Thickness-Roughness Ratio �� 147

6.1.2 Transformation from Hydrodynamic Lubrication to EHL 148

6.1.3 Transformation from EHL to Thin Film Lubrication 149

6.2 Thin Film Lubrication 152

6.2.1 Phenomenon ofThin Film Lubrication 153

6.2.2 Time Effect of Thin Film Lubrication 154

6.2.3 Shear Strain Rate Effect onThin Film Lubrication 157

6.3 Analysis ofThin Film Lubrication 158

6.3.1 Difficulties in Numerical Analysis of Thin Film Lubrication 158

6.3.2 Tichy’s Thin Film Lubrication Models 160

6.3.2.1 Direction Factor Model 160

6.3.2.2 Surface Layer Model 161

6.3.2.3 Porous Surface Layer Model 161

6.4 Nano-Gas Film Lubrication 161

6.4.1 Rarefied Gas Effect 162

6.4.2 Boundary Slip 163

6.4.2.1 Slip Flow 163

6.4.2.2 Slip Models 163

6.4.2.3 Boltzmann Equation for Rarefied Gas Lubrication 165

6.4.3 Reynolds Equation Considering the Rarefied Gas Effect 165

6.4.4 Calculation of Magnetic Head/Disk of UltraThin Gas Lubrication 166

6.4.4.1 Large Bearing Number Problem 167

6.4.4.2 Sudden Step Change Problem 167

6.4.4.3 Solution of Ultra-Thin Gas Lubrication of Multi-Track Magnetic Heads 167

References 169

7 Boundary Lubrication and Additives 171

7.1 Types of Boundary Lubrication 171

7.1.1 Stribeck Curve 171

7.1.2 Adsorption Films and Their Lubrication Mechanisms 172

7.1.2.1 Adsorption Phenomena and Adsorption Films 172

7.1.2.2 Structure and Property of Adsorption Films 174

7.1.3 Chemical Reaction Film and its Lubrication Mechanism 177

7.1.3.1 Additives of Chemical Reaction Film 178

7.1.3.2 Notes for Applications of Extreme Pressure Additives 178

7.1.4 Other Boundary Films and their Lubrication Mechanisms 179

7.1.4.1 High Viscosity Thick Film 179

7.1.4.2 Polishing Thin Film 179

7.1.4.3 Surface Softening Effect 179

7.2 Theory of Boundary Lubrication 179

7.2.1 Boundary Lubrication Model 179

7.2.2 Factors Influencing Performance of Boundary Films 181

7.2.2.1 Internal Pressure Caused by Surface Tension 181

7.2.2.2 Adsorption Heat of Boundary Film 182

7.2.2.3 Critical Temperature 183

7.2.3 Strength of Boundary Film 184

7.3 Lubricant Additives 185

7.3.1 Oily Additives 185

7.3.2 Tackifier 186

7.3.3 Extreme Pressure Additives (EP Additives) 187

7.3.4 Anti-Wear Additives 187

7.3.5 Other Additives 187

References 189

8 Lubrication Failure and Mixed Lubrication 190

8.1 Roughness and Viscoelastic Material Effects on Lubrication 190

8.1.1 Modifications of Micro-EHL 190

8.1.2 Viscoelastic Model 191

8.1.3 LubricatedWear 192

8.1.3.1 LubricatedWear Criteria 193

8.1.3.2 LubricatedWear Model 193

8.1.3.3 LubricatedWear Example 193

8.2 Influence of Limit Shear Stress on Lubrication Failure 195

8.2.1 Visco-Plastic Constitutive Equation 195

8.2.2 Slip of Fluid–Solid Interface 196

8.2.3 Influence of Slip on Lubrication Properties 196

8.3 Influence of Temperature on Lubrication Failure 200

8.3.1 Mechanism of Lubrication Failure Caused by Temperature 200

8.3.2 Thermal Fluid Constitutive Equation 201

8.3.3 Analysis of Lubrication Failure 202

8.4 Mixed Lubrication 203

References 207

Part II Friction andWear 209

9 Surface Topography and Contact 211

9.1 Parameters of Surface Topography 211

9.1.1 ArithmeticMean Deviation Ra 211

9.1.2 Root-Mean-Square Deviation (RMS) �� or Rq 211

9.1.3 Maximum Height Rmax 212

9.1.4 Load-Carrying Area Curve 212

9.1.5 ArithmeticMean Interception Length of Centerline Sma 212

9.1.5.1 Slope ż a or ż q 213

9.1.5.2 Peak Curvature Ca or Cq 213

9.2 Statistical Parameters of Surface Topography 213

9.2.1 Height Distribution Function 214

9.2.2 Deviation of Distribution 215

9.2.3 Autocorrelation Function of Surface Profile 216

9.3 Structures and Properties of Surface 217

9.4 Rough Surface Contact 219

9.4.1 Single Peak Contact 219

9.4.2 Ideal Roughness Contact 220

9.4.3 Random Roughness Contact 221

9.4.4 Plasticity Index 223

References 223

10 Sliding Friction and its Applications 225

10.1 Basic Characteristics of Friction 225

10.1.1 Influence of Stationary Contact Time 226

10.1.2 Jerking Motion 226

10.1.3 Pre-Displacement 227

10.2 Macro-FrictionTheory 228

10.2.1 Mechanical EngagementTheory 228

10.2.2 Molecular Action Theory 229

10.2.3 Adhesive FrictionTheory 229

10.2.3.1 Main Points of Adhesive Friction Theory 230

10.2.3.2 Revised Adhesion Friction Theory 232

10.2.4 Plowing Effect 233

10.2.5 Deformation Energy Friction Theory 235

10.2.6 Binomial FrictionTheory 236

10.3 Micro-FrictionTheory 238

10.3.1 “Cobblestone” Model 238

10.3.2 Oscillator Models 240

10.3.2.1 Independent Oscillator Model 240

10.3.2.2 Composite Oscillator Model 241

10.3.2.3 FK Model 242

10.3.3 Phonon Friction Model 242

10.4 Sliding Friction 243

10.4.1 Influence of Load 243

10.4.2 Influence of Sliding Velocity 244

10.4.3 Influence of Temperature 245

10.4.4 Influence of Surface Film 245

10.5 Other Friction Problems and Friction Control 246

10.5.1 Friction in SpecialWorking Conditions 246

10.5.1.1 High Velocity Friction 246

10.5.1.2 High Temperature Friction 246

10.5.1.3 Low Temperature Friction 247

10.5.1.4 Vacuum Friction 247

10.5.2 Friction Control 247

10.5.2.1 Method of Applying Voltage 247

10.5.2.2 Effectiveness of Electronic Friction Control 248

10.5.2.3 Real-Time Friction Control 249

References 250

11 Rolling Friction and its Applications 252

11.1 Basic Theories of Rolling Friction 252

11.1.1 Rolling Resistance Coefficient 252

11.1.2 Rolling Friction Theories 254

11.1.2.1 HysteresisTheory 255

11.1.2.2 Plastic DeformationTheory 256

11.1.2.3 Micro Slip Theory 257

11.1.3 Adhesion Effect on Rolling Friction 258

11.1.4 Factors Influencing Rolling Friction of Wheel and Rail 260

11.1.5 Thermal Analysis ofWheel and Rail 262

11.1.5.1 Heat Transferring Model ofWheel and Rail Contact 262

11.1.5.2 Temperature Rise Analysis of Wheel and Rail Contact 264

11.1.5.3 Transient Temperature Rise Analysis ofWheel for Two-DimensionalThermal

Shock 268

11.1.5.4 Three-Dimensional Transient Analysis of Temperature Rise of Contact 269

11.1.5.5 Thermal Solution for the Rail 270

11.2 Applications of Rolling Tribology in Design of Lunar Rover 271

11.2.1 Foundations of Force Analysis for Rigid Wheel 271

11.2.1.1 Resistant Force of Driving RigidWheel 271

11.2.1.2 Driving Force and Sliding/Rolling Ratio of the Wheel 274

11.2.2 Mechanics Model of a Wheel on a Soft Surface 275

11.2.2.1 Wheel Sinkage 276

11.2.2.2 Soil Deformation and Stress Model 276

11.2.2.3 Interaction Force between Wheel and Soil 277

11.2.3 Dynamic Analysis of Rolling Mechanics of Lunar Rover with Unequal Diameter

Wheel 278

11.2.3.1 Structure with Unequal DiameterWheel 278

11.2.3.2 Interaction model of wheel and soil 278

11.2.3.3 Model and Calculation of Movement for Unequal Diameter Wheel 280

References 280

12 Characteristics andMechanisms of Wear 282

12.1 Classification ofWear 282

12.1.1 Wear Categories 282

12.1.1.1 MechanicalWear 282

12.1.1.2 Molecular and MechanicalWear 283

12.1.1.3 Corrosive and MechanicalWear 283

12.1.2 Wear Process 283

12.1.2.1 Surface Interaction 283

12.1.2.2 Variation of Surface 283

12.1.2.3 Forms of Surface Damage 284

12.1.3 Conversion ofWear 285

12.2 AbrasiveWear 285

12.2.1 Types of AbrasiveWear 285

12.2.2 Factors Influencing AbrasiveWear 286

12.2.3 Mechanism of AbrasiveWear 289

12.3 AdhesiveWear 290

12.3.1 Types of AdhesiveWear 291

12.3.1.1 Light AdhesiveWear 291

12.3.1.2 Common AdhesiveWear 291

12.3.1.3 Scratch 291

12.3.1.4 Scuffing 291

12.3.2 Factors Influencing AdhesiveWear 291

12.3.2.1 Load 291

12.3.2.2 Surface Temperature 292

12.3.2.3 Materials 293

12.3.3 AdhesiveWear Mechanism 294

12.3.4 Criteria of Scuffing 296

12.3.4.1 p0Us ≤ c Criterion 296

12.3.4.2 WUns ≤ c 296

12.3.4.3 Instantaneous Temperature Criterion 297

12.3.4.4 Scuffing Factor Criterion 298

12.4 FatigueWear 298

12.4.1 Types of FatigueWear 298

12.4.1.1 Superficial FatigueWear and Surface FatigueWear 298

12.4.1.2 Pitting and Peeling 299

12.4.2 Factors Influencing FatigueWear 300

12.4.2.1 Load Property 300

12.4.2.2 Material Property 302

12.4.2.3 Physical and Chemical Effects of the Lubricant 302

12.4.3 Criteria of Fatigue Strength and Fatigue Life 303

12.4.3.1 Contact Stress State 303

12.4.3.2 Contact Fatigue Strength Criteria 304

12.4.3.3 Contact Fatigue Life 306

12.5 CorrosiveWear 307

12.5.1 OxidationWear 307

12.5.2 Special CorrosiveWear 309

12.5.2.1 Factors Influencing the CorrosionWear 309

12.5.2.2 Chemical-Mechanical Polishing 309

12.5.3 Fretting 309

12.5.4 Cavitation Erosion 310

References 312

13 Macro-Wear Theory 314

13.1 Friction Material 315

13.1.1 Friction Material Properties 315

13.1.1.1 Mechanical Properties 315

13.1.1.2 Anti-Friction andWear-Resistance 315

13.1.1.3 Thermal Property 316

13.1.1.4 Lubrication Ability 316

13.1.2 Wear-Resistant Mechanism 316

13.1.2.1 Hard Phase Bearing Mechanism 316

13.1.2.2 Soft Phase Bearing Mechanism 316

13.1.2.3 Porous Saving Oil Mechanism 316

13.1.2.4 Plastic Coating Mechanism 317

13.2 Wear Process Curve 317

13.2.1 Types ofWear Process Curves 317

13.2.2 Running-In 317

13.2.2.1 Working Life 318

13.2.2.2 Measures to Improve the Running-in Performance 319

13.3 Surface Quality andWear 320

13.3.1 Influence of Geometric Quality 321

13.3.2 Physical Quality 323

13.4 Theory of AdhesionWear 324

13.5 Theory of EnergyWear 325

13.6 DelaminationWearTheory and FatigueWear Theory 327

13.6.1 DelaminationWearTheory 327

13.6.2 FatigueWear Theory 329

13.7 Wear Calculation 329

13.7.1 IBMWear Calculation Method 329

13.7.1.1 Type A 330

13.7.1.2 Type B 331

13.7.2 Calculation Method of CombinedWear 331

References 335

14 Anti-Wear Design and Surface Coating 337

14.1 Selection of Lubricant and Additive 337

14.1.1 Lubricant Selection 337

14.1.1.1 Viscosity, Viscosity Index and Viscosity-Pressure Coefficient 339

14.1.1.2 Stability 339

14.1.1.3 Other Requirements 339

14.1.2 Grease Selection 340

14.1.2.1 The Composition of Grease 340

14.1.2.2 Function of Densifier 340

14.1.2.3 Grease Additives 340

14.1.3 Solid Lubricants 341

14.1.4 Seal and Filter 341

14.2 Matching Principles of Friction Materials 343

14.2.1 MaterialMating for AbrasiveWear 343

14.2.2 MaterialMating for AdhesiveWear 344

14.2.3 MaterialMating for Contact FatigueWear 345

14.2.4 Material Mating for FrettingWear 345

14.2.5 MaterialMating for CorrosionWear 345

14.2.6 Surface Hardening 346

14.3 Surface Coating 346

14.3.1 Common PlatingMethods 347

14.3.1.1 BeadWelding 347

14.3.1.2 Thermal Spraying 348

14.3.1.3 Slurry Coating 349

14.3.1.4 Electric Brush Plating 350

14.3.1.5 Plating 350

14.3.2 Design of Surface Coating 354

14.3.2.1 General Principles of Coating Design 354

14.3.2.2 Selection of Surface PlatingMethod 354

14.4 Coating Performance Testing 355

14.4.1 Appearance and Structure 355

14.4.1.1 Coating Appearance 355

14.4.1.2 Measurement of CoatingThickness 355

14.4.1.3 Determination of Coating Porosity 355

14.4.2 Bond Strength Test 356

14.4.2.1 Drop Hammer Impact Test 356

14.4.2.2 Vibrator Impact Test 356

14.4.2.3 Scratch Test 357

14.4.2.4 Broken Test 357

14.4.2.5 Tensile Bond Strength Test 357

14.4.2.6 Shear Bond Strength Test 357

14.4.2.7 Measurement of Internal Bond Strength of Coating 358

14.4.3 Hardness Test 360

14.4.3.1 Micro-Hardness (Hm) Testing 360

14.4.3.2 Hoffman Scratch Hardness Testing 360

14.4.4 Wear Test 360

14.4.5 Tests of Other Performances 361

14.4.5.1 Fatigue Test 361

14.4.5.2 Measurement of Residual Stress 361

References 362

15 Tribological Experiments 363

15.1 Tribological ExperimentalMethod and Devices 363

15.1.1 ExperimentalMethods 363

15.1.1.1 Laboratory Specimen Test 363

15.1.1.2 Simulation Test 363

15.1.1.3 Actual Test 363

15.1.2 Commonly Used Friction andWear Testing Machines 364

15.1.3 EHL andThin Film Lubrication Test 365

15.1.3.1 EHL andThin Film Lubrication Test Machine 365

15.1.3.2 Principle of Relative Light Intensity 366

15.2 Measurement ofWear Capacity 368

15.2.1 Weighing Method 368

15.2.2 Length Measurement Method 368

15.2.3 Profile Method 368

15.2.4 IndentationMethod 369

15.2.5 Grooving Method 371

15.2.6 PrecipitationMethod and Chemical AnalysisMethod 372

15.2.7 Radioactive Method 373

15.3 Analysis of Friction Surface Morphology 373

15.3.1 Analysis of Surface Topography 373

15.3.2 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 374

15.3.3 Surface Structure Analysis 375

15.3.4 Surface Chemical Composition Analysis 377

15.3.4.1 Energy Spectrum Analysis 377

15.3.4.2 Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA) 377

15.4 Wear State Detection 378

15.4.1 Ferrography Analysis 378

15.4.2 Spectral Analysis 379

15.4.3 Lubricant Composition Analysis 380

15.4.4 Mechanical Vibration and Noise Analysis 380

15.4.5 Lubrication State Analysis 380

15.5 Wear Failure Analysis 380

15.5.1 Site Investigation 380

15.5.2 Lubricant and its Supply System 381

15.5.3 Worn Part Analysis 381

15.5.4 Design and Operation 381

References 383

Part III Applied Tribology 385

16 Micro-Tribology 387

16.1 Micro-Friction 387

16.1.1 Macro-Friction and Micro-Friction 387

16.1.2 Micro-Friction and Surface Topography 388

16.1.3 Plowing Effect and Adhesion Effect 391

16.1.3.1 Plowing Effect 391

16.1.3.2 Adhesion Effect 391

16.2 Micro-Contact and Micro-Adhesion 393

16.2.1 Solid Micro-Contact 393

16.2.1.1 Zero Load Contact 393

16.2.1.2 Elastic, Elastic-Plastic and Plastic Contacts 393

16.2.2 Solid Adhesion and Surface Force 394

16.2.2.1 Solid Adhesion Phenomena 394

16.2.2.2 Adhesion and Surface Force 395

16.3 Micro-Wear 396

16.3.1 Micro-Wear Experiment 396

16.3.2 Micro-Wear of Magnetic Head and Disk 398

16.4 Molecular Film and Boundary Lubrication 401

16.4.1 Static Shear Property of Molecular Layer 401

16.4.2 Dynamic Shear Property of Monolayer and Stick-Slip Phenomenon 402

16.4.3 Physical State and Phase Change 404

16.4.4 Temperature Effect and Friction Mechanism 405

16.4.5 Rheological Property of Molecular Film 406

16.4.6 Organized Molecular Film 408

16.4.6.1 LB Film 408

16.4.6.2 Self-Assembled Monolayer 409

References 410

17 Metal Forming Tribology 412

17.1 Mechanics Basis of Metal Forming 412

17.1.1 Yield Criterion 412

17.1.2 Friction Coefficient and Shear Factor 413

17.1.2.1 Friction Coefficient and Interface Adhesion 413

17.1.2.2 Shear Factor 414

17.1.3 Influence of Friction on Metal Forming 414

17.1.3.1 Influence of Friction on Deformation Force 415

17.1.3.2 Non-Uniform Deformation 415

17.2 Forging Tribology 416

17.2.1 Upsetting Friction 416

17.2.1.1 Cylinder Upsetting 416

17.2.1.2 Ring Upsetting 417

17.2.2 Friction of Open Die Forging 418

17.2.3 Friction of Closed-Die Forging 418

17.2.4 Lubrication andWear 418

17.3 Drawing Tribology 421

17.3.1 Friction and Temperature 421

17.3.2 Lubrication 422

17.3.2.1 Establishment of Hydrodynamic Lubrication 423

17.3.2.2 Hydrodynamic Lubrication Calculation of Drawing 424

17.3.3 Wear of Drawing Die 424

17.3.3.1 Wear of Die Shape 424

17.3.3.2 Wear Mechanism 425

17.3.3.3 Measures to ReduceWear 425

17.3.4 Anti-Friction of Ultrasound in Drawing 427

17.4 Rolling Tribology 429

17.4.1 Friction in Rolling 429

17.4.1.1 Pressure Distribution and Frictional Force 429

17.4.1.2 Friction Coefficient of Rolling 430

17.4.2 Lubrication in Rolling 432

17.4.2.1 Full Film Lubrication 432

17.4.2.2 Mixed Lubrication 432

17.4.3 RollerWear 434

17.4.4 Emulsion Lubricity in Rolling 434

References 435

18 Bio-Tribology 437

18.1 Mechanics Basis for Soft Biological Tissue 437

18.1.1 Rheological Properties of Soft Tissue 437

18.1.2 Stress–Strain Curve Analysis 437

18.1.3 Anisotropy Relationships 439

18.2 Characteristics of Joint Lubricating Fluid 440

18.2.1 Joint Lubricating Fluid 440

18.2.2 Lubrication Characteristics of Joint Fluid 441

18.3 Lubrication of Human and Animal Joints 443

18.3.1 Performance of Human Joint 444

18.3.2 Joint Lubricating Fluid 445

18.3.3 Lubrication Mechanism of Joint 446

18.4 Friction andWear of Artificial Joint 447

18.4.1 Friction andWear Test 447

18.4.2 Wear of Artificial Joint 448

18.4.2.1 ExperimentalMethod and Apparatus 449

18.4.2.2 Test Results 449

18.5 Other Bio-Tribological Studies 451

Referencess 452

19 Space Tribology 453

19.1 Features of Space Agency and Space Tribology 453

19.1.1 Working Conditions in Space 453

19.1.2 Features of Space Tribology Problems 455

19.2 Analysis of Performances of Space Tribology 456

19.2.1 Starved Lubrication 456

19.2.2 Parched Lubrication 456

19.2.3 Volatility Analysis 458

19.2.4 Creeping 460

19.3 Space Lubricating Properties 462

19.3.1 EHL Characteristics of Space Lubricant 462

19.3.2 Space Lubrication of Rolling Contact Bearing 463

19.3.2.1 Bearing Coating 463

19.3.2.2 Lubricant Film Transfer Technology 464

19.3.2.3 Cage Instability 464

References 465

20 Tribology of Micro Electromechanical System 466

20.1 Introduction 466

20.2 Tribological Analysis Technique for MEMS 467

20.2.1 Measurement of Micro/Nano-Frictional Force 467

20.2.2 Stick-Slip Phenomenon 470

20.2.3 Measurement of Micro Adhesive Force 473

20.2.4 Factors Influencing Surface Analysis 473

20.2.4.1 Normal Load 473

20.2.4.2 Temperature 478

20.2.4.3 Sliding Velocity 483

20.3 Tribological Study of a Micro Motor 484

20.3.1 Lubrication of Micro Motor 486

20.3.2 Measurement of Frictional Force 487

20.3.3 Influence Factors 488

20.3.3.1 Intermittent Time 488

20.3.3.2 Humidity 489

20.3.3.3 Hydrodynamic Film and Boundary Film 490

20.4 Wear Analysis of MEMS 491

20.4.1 Mechanism of MicroWear 492

20.4.2 MicroWear of Monocrystalline Silicon 494

20.4.3 MicroWear of Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloy 496

20.4.3.1 Indentation 497

20.4.3.2 Temperature 499

20.4.4 Analysis of Surface Bulging 501

20.4.4.1 Bulging Phenomenon 502

20.4.4.2 Mechanism of Bulging 504

References 507

21 Ecological Tribology 509

21.1 Zero Friction and Superlubrication 509

21.1.1 Phenomenon of Superlubrication 509

21.1.2 Mechanisms of Superlubrication 510

21.1.2.1 Superfluidity 510

21.1.2.2 Superlubrication for Special Surface Pair and in a Special Direction 511

21.1.2.3 Superdynamic Friction 512

21.1.2.4 Molecular Polymer Film 513

21.1.3 Discussion of Superlubrication 514

21.1.3.1 Molecular Organization 514

21.1.3.2 Types of Molecular Films 514

21.1.3.3 Influence of External Field 515

21.2 Green Lubricant 516

21.2.1 Introduction of Green Lubricants 517

21.2.1.1 Harmfulness of petroleum products 517

21.2.1.2 Harmfulness ofWaste Oil 517

21.2.1.3 Harmfulness ofWaste Gas 517

21.2.1.4 Green Basis Oils, Lubricating Oil and Additives 517

21.2.2 Development of Green Lubricating Oil for Refrigeration 518

21.2.3 Application Tests 520

21.2.3.1 Application Test of Polyether Oil GE-30T 520

21.2.3.2 Application Test GT-50T 521

21.2.4 Biodegradation Test 521

21.3 Friction-Induced Noise and Control 523

21.3.1 Stick-Slip Model 523

21.3.2 Friction-Induced Noise of Wheel-Rail 524

21.3.3 Friction-Induced Noise of Rolling Contact Bearing 526

21.3.3.1 Sources of Noise 526

21.3.3.2 Influence Factors of Noise 527

21.4 Remanufacturing and Self-Repairing 528

21.4.1 Remanufacturing 529

21.4.1.1 Laser Remanufacturing Technology 529

21.4.1.2 Electric Brush Plating Technology 530

21.4.1.3 Nano Brush Plating Technology 530

21.4.1.4 Supersonic Spray Coating Technology 530

21.4.2 Self-Repairing 531

21.4.2.1 Spreading Film 531

21.4.2.2 Eutectic Film 531

References 532

Index 535