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Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, 4th Edition

Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy, 4th Edition

Thomas V. Cech

ISBN: 978-1-118-79029-8 April 2018 528 Pages

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$166.95

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Proper management of water resources can take many forms, and requires the knowledge and expertise to work at the intersection of mathematics, geology, biology, geography, meteorology, political science, and even psychology. This book provides an essential foundation in water management and development concepts and practices, dissecting complex topics into short, understandable explanations that spark true interest in the field. Approaching the study of water resources systematically, the discussion begins with historical perspective before moving on to physical processes, engineering, water chemistry, government regulation, environmental issues, global conflict, and more.

Now in its fourth edition, this text provides the most current introduction to a field that is becoming ever more critical as climate change begins to threaten water supplies around the world. As geography, climate, population growth, and technology collide, effective resource management must include a comprehensive understanding of how these forces intermingle and come to life in the water so critical to us all.

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About The Author iv

Preface v

Book Companion Website xiv

INTRODUCTION

Emerging Water Issues And Challenges 1

Global Water Issues 1

Population 1

Lack of Wastewater Treatment 1

Environmental Degradation 1

Climate Change 2

Global Water Efforts 2

Drinking Water Quality 2

Water Conservation 3

Groundwater Recharge 4

Dam Construction 4

Desalination 5

Food for Thought 6

Scenario 1: “Business as Usual” 6

Scenario 2: “Technology Saves the Day” 6

Scenario 3: “Global Warming Floods the World” 7

Scenario 4: “Space Is the Answer” 7

What Can I Do? 7

CHAPTER 1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF WATER USE AND DEVELOPMENT 9

Drinking Water for Early Civilizations 9

Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects 14

Egypt 14

China 14

The Middle East 17

India, Spain, Portugal, and South America 17

North America 18

Early Water Transportation Development 21

Egypt and Greece 21

China 21

Europe 21

The United States 23

Early Hydropower Development 25

CHAPTER 2 THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, CLIMATE, AND WEATHER 30

The Properties of Water 30

The Hydrologic Cycle 32

Precipitation 32

Measuring Precipitation 35

Runoff 38

Surface and Groundwater Storage 38

Lakes and Reservoirs 38

CASE STUDY The Aral Sea of Uzbekistan 40

Wetlands 41

Groundwater 41

Evaporation, Transpiration, and Consumptive Use 42

Condensation 45

GUEST ESSAY Fog Harvesting by Dr. Robert SSchemenauer 45

Climate and Weather 48

Overview 48

Climate 48

Air Currents 49

Ocean Currents 49

Tilt of the Earth’s Axis 52

Monitoring Climate Change 52

Urban Microclimates 53

GUEST ESSAY Urbanization and Its Effects on Key Atmospheric and Surface Water Cycles by Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd 53

Weather 56

Temperature 56

Air Pressure 57

Humidity 58

Heating 59

Wind Speed and Direction 62

Weather Modification 62

Floods 64

Drought 66

CHAPTER 3 SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY 72

What Is Surface Water Hydrology? 72

Watersheds 73

Delineating A Watershed 74

Overland Flow 76

Rivers 76

Components of a River 76

River Morphology 77

Types of Rivers 80

Gradient 80

Lakes 81

Types of Lakes 81

Ecological Zones 82

Thermal Cycles 82

Seiches 83

Wetlands 84

Surface Water Measurement 85

Overland Flow 85

Expert Analysis 85

River Discharge 85

Water Storage in Lakes and Reservoirs 89

Flood Events 90

Flood Frequency 91

Probable Maximum Precipitation 91

Probable Maximum Flood 91

Transport and Deposition 92

Velocity 93

Sediment Load 94

CHAPTER 4 GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY 98

What Is Groundwater? 99

What Is Groundwater Hydrology? 100

The Geology of Groundwater 101

GUEST ESSAY Sinkholes by Carlos Herd 102

Glaciated Terrain 104

Alluvial Valleys 107

Tectonic Activity 107

Groundwater Recharge 107

Aquifers 109

Aquifer Types 109

Properties of Aquifers 113

Groundwater Movement and Discharge 115

Age of Groundwater 119

Locating and Mapping Groundwater 120

GUEST ESSAY Measuring Groundwater by Kevin Donegan 122

Constructing a Groundwater Well 124

Streamflow Depletion by Wells 126

Groundwater and Climate Change 128

GUEST ESSAY Seawater Intrusion by Dr. Adrian D. Werner 129

CHAPTER 5 WATER QUALITY 133

Water Pollution 133

Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollution 134

Point Source Pollution 135

Nonpoint Source Pollution 137

Basic Parameters of Water Quality 138

Temperature 138

Dissolved Oxygen 139

pH 139

Turbidity 140

Hardness 141

Inorganic Chemicals 142

Metals 142

Lead 142

Arsenic 143

Minerals 144

Salt 144

Fluoride 146

Selenium 147

Organic Chemicals 147

Natural Organic Chemicals 147

Synthetic Organic Compounds 147

Pesticides 148

Pharmaceuticals 150

Microbeads 150

Nutrients 150

Nitrogen 150

Phosphorus 151

The Nitrogen Cycle 152

Nitrogen Fixation 152

Mineralization/Ammonification 153

Nitrification 153

Denitrification 153

The Phosphorus Cycle 153

Eutrophication 154

Waterborne Diseases 154

Historical Problems 154

Microorganisms 155

Indicator Organisms 156

Other Waterborne Organisms 156

Water Quality Management 158

Fate and Transport 158

Fate and Transport in Surface Water 158

Fate and Transport in Groundwater 159

Wellhead Protection Programs 159

Watershed Protection Programs 160

Total Maximum Daily Loads 161

GUEST ESSAY Lake Okeechobee TMDLs by Dr. David Radcliffe and Dr. Todd Rasmussen 161

Water Sampling 163

CHAPTER 6 MUNICIPAL AND IRRIGATION WATER DEVELOPMENT 169

Municipal Water Systems 170

CASE STUDY Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles, California 170

CASE STUDY Lincoln Water System Lincoln, Nebraska 176

CASE STUDY New York City Department of Environmental Protection New York, New York 178

GUEST ESSAY Construction of City Tunnel #3 by Eileen M. Schnock 181

Agricultural Crop Irrigation 186

Historical Perspective 186

The Need for Irrigation 186

Irrigation Techniques 187

Gravity Irrigation 190

Sprinkler Irrigation 194

Drip Irrigation 197

CHAPTER 7 DAMS 201

Dam Basics 201

Purposes of Dams 201

Components of Dams 203

Types of Dams 204

Dam Operations and Construction 205

CASE STUDY Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona 206

CASE STUDY Kingsley Dam and Lake McConaughy, Nebraska 210

CASE STUDY Grand Coulee Dam and Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Washington State 214

Environmental Impacts of Dams 216

GUEST ESSAY Forced Urbanization: The Three Gorges Dam Relocation Process by Colin Flahive 218

Dams and Locks for Navigation 221

GUEST ESSAY Navigation on the Tennessee River by Ted Nelson 223

CHAPTER 8 WATER ALLOCATION LAW 228

Ancient Water Allocation Law 229

Code of Hammurabi 229

Justinian Code 229

Ancient Riparian Doctrine 230

Water Allocation Law: 1200–1799 231

Spanish Water Law 231

First Possession 233

English Common Law: 1200–1799 233

Mill Acts of the Eastern United States 234

Water Allocation Law: 1800–1847 236

Code Napoléon 236

Riparian Doctrine: 1800–1847 236

Tyler v. Wilkinson 237

Water Allocation Law in the Western United States: 1800–1847 238

Water Allocation Law: 1848–1899 240

Riparian Doctrine 240

Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1848–1899 240

The California Gold Rush 242

The Colorado Gold Rush 245

Water Allocation Law: 1900–Present 249

Riparian Doctrine 249

Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1900–Present 251

Interstate River Compacts 254

Selected River Compacts 254

Colorado River Compact of 1922 254

Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty of 1950 257

Delaware River Compact of 1961 258

International Water Treaties 259

Groundwater Allocation Law 259

Historical Perspective 259

Role of the Federal Government 260

Legal Properties of Groundwater 260

Federal Reserved Water Rights 262

CHAPTER 9 FEDERAL WATER AGENCIES 266

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) 267

Overview 267

Brief History and Duties 267

Navigation Duties 268

Flood-Control Duties 270

Wetlands Protection Duties 275

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) 276

Overview 276

Brief History 277

National Irrigation Congresses 278

The Reclamation Act of 1902 279

The Anti-Dam Construction Era 280

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 282

Overview 282

Brief History 283

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 286

Overview 286

Brief History 286

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 289

Overview 289

Brief History 289

National Park Service (NPS) 291

Overview 291

Brief History 291

Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 293

Overview 293

Brief History 293

Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) 294

Overview 294

Brief History 294

U.S. Forest Service (USFS) 294

Overview 294

Brief History 295

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 296

Overview and Brief History 296

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) 297

Overview and Brief History 297

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 297

Overview and Brief History 297

Careers 300

GUEST ESSAY The Career Tree by Courtney Black 300

CHAPTER 10 LOCAL, REGIONAL, STATE, AND MULTISTATE WATER

MANAGEMENT AGENCIES 306

Local Water Agencies 306

Municipal Water Departments 306

Historical Overview 306

Water and Sewer Districts 308

Overview 308

EXAMPLE Highline Water District, Kent, Washington 309

Levee and Flood-Control Districts 309

Historical Overview 309

Levee Districts 310

Flood-Control Districts 312

EXAMPLE Pima County Regional Flood Control District, Tucson, Arizona 312

Mutual Ditch and Irrigation Companies 313

Regional Water Agencies 314

Overview 314

Irrigation Districts 315

EXAMPLE Farwell Irrigation District, Farwell, Nebraska 315

Conservancy/Conservation Districts 316

EXAMPLE Miami Conservancy District, Dayton, Ohio 316

Natural Resources Districts—Nebraska 317

EXAMPLE Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District, Omaha, Nebraska 318

Groundwater Management Districts—Kansas 318

EXAMPLE Northwest Kansas Groundwater Management District No. 4, Colby, Kansas 319

Water Management Districts—Florida 319

State Water Agencies 321

State of Arizona Water Agencies 321

State of Rhode Island Water Agencies 322

Multistate Water Agencies 323

Chesapeake Bay Commission 323

Tribal and First Peoples Water Issues 323

Water Management in Mexico and Canada 324

Overview 324

GUEST ESSAY Water Management in Mexico by Dr. Alvaro A. Aldama 324

GUEST ESSAY Water Management in Canada by Dr. Sandra Smith 329

CHAPTER 11 DRINKING-WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT 334

Introduction 334

Historical Perspective on Drinking-Water Treatment 334

Modern Day Drinking-Water Sources 338

GUEST ESSAY Borehole water contaminants and its implication on health on the rural communities of Malawi, Africa by J. B. Chimphamba 338

Desalination 345

GUEST ESSAY Review of Advances in Science and Engineering for Brackish Water and Seawater Desalination Technologies by Dr. Fares Howari 347

Federal Protection of Drinking Water in the United States 350

Drinking-Water Treatment Processes 352

Protection of Water Quality 352

Intakes for Raw Water 352

CASE STUDY Department of Water Management, City of Chicago, Illinois 353

Pretreatment of Drinking Water 355

Flocculation/Coagulation 355

Filtration 356

CASE STUDY Sewerage and Water Board, City of New Orleans, Louisiana 356

Final Drinking-Water Treatment 358

Distribution Systems 358

GUEST ESSAY BUAP Drinking Water Fountains by Vladimir Escalante-Pozos 359

Historical Perspective on Wastewater Treatment 361

Wastewater Treatment Processes 364

Primary Treatment 364

Secondary Treatment 365

Tertiary Treatment 366

Nutrient Removal 366

Septic Tanks and Leach Fields 367

Wetlands and Water Treatment 367

CHAPTER 12 WATER, FISH AND WILDLIFE 371

Early Fish and Wildlife Protection 371

Fish and Wildlife Protection in the 20th Century 372

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 373

National Environmental Policy Act 374

Endangered Species Act 377

Wetlands and Wildlife 379

CASE STUDY Snail Darters and the Little Tennessee River 383

CASE STUDY Whooping Cranes and the Platte River 386

CASE STUDY Salmon and the Columbia River 390

Human–Environment Relationship 395

GUEST ESSAY By Dr. Milada Matouskova,

An Example of Water Ecosystem Restoration and Its Influence on Flood Protection in the Czech Republic 396

GUEST ESSAY Careers in Fish and Wildlife Management by Larry Rogstad 400

CHAPTER 13 THE ECONOMICS OF WATER 405

Introduction 405

The Value of Water 406

GUEST ESSAY Ecosystem-based water management in India in a climate constrained world by Dr. Prakash Rao 407

Water as A Public Versus A Private Good 410

Privatization 410

Water Affordability 412

Water Marketing 414

Surface Water Marketing 414

Groundwater Marketing 416

Water Banking 418

Pollution Fees and Credits 418

The Water-Energy Nexus 419

The Triple Bottom Line 419

GUEST ESSAY Dr. Sarah Wolfe Guest Essay—Water: A Wicked Problem by Dr. Sarah Wolfe 420

CHAPTER 14 WICKED WATER PROBLEMS 424

Reasons for Water Use Conflicts 424

Texas 426

GUEST ESSAY Water Planning in Texas by Connie Townsend, P.E. 427

Alabama and Florida Versus Georgia 431

Northern and Southern California 435

Canada 437

The Middle East 438

Religious/Political Background 438

Water Resources in the Middle East 440

West Bank Mountain Aquifer 440

Jordan River 440

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 442

Tragedy of the Commons 443

GUEST ESSAY Transboundary Water Management in Norway and the Nordic Countries by Julie Gjørtz Howden 444

CHAPTER 15 THE NEED FOR COOPERATION 449

The Human Factor 449

Ethics 450

The Power of the Individual 451

What Can I Do To Make A Difference? 452

REFERENCES 453

APPENDIX A

Reading Topographic Maps 470

Selected Environmental and Conservation Organizations 471

Ducks Unlimited 471

Environmental Defense Fund 471

National Audubon Society 471

National Wildlife Federation 472

Nature Conservancy 473

Natural Resources Defense Council 473

Sierra Club 473

Trout Unlimited 473

Wilderness Society 473

APPENDIX B

Guest Essay References 475

Illustration And Text Credits 479

Glossary 480

Index 492

About The Author iv

Preface v

Book Companion Website xiv

I N T RODUCTION

Emerging Water Issues And Challenges 1

Global Water Issues 1

Population 1

Lack of Wastewater Treatment 1

Environmental Degradation 1

Climate Change 2

Global Water Efforts 2

Drinking Water Quality 2

Water Conservation 3

Groundwater Recharge 4

Dam Construction 4

Desalination 5

Food for Thought 6

Scenario 1: “Business as Usual” 6

Scenario 2: “Technology Saves the Day” 6

Scenario 3: “Global Warming Floods the World” 7

Scenario 4: “Space Is the Answer” 7

What Can I Do? 7

CHAPTER1 HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF WATER USE AND DEVELOPMENT 9

Drinking Water for Early Civilizations 9

Early Irrigation and Flood-Control Projects 14

Egypt 14

China 14

The Middle East 17

India, Spain, Portugal, and South America 17

North America 18

Early Water Transportation Development 21

Egypt and Greece 21

China 21

Europe 21

The United States 23

Early Hydropower Development 25

CHAPTER 2THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE, CLIMATE, AND WEATHER 30

The Properties of Water 30

The Hydrologic Cycle 32

Precipitation 32

Measuring Precipitation 35

Runoff 38

Surface and Groundwater Storage 38

Lakes and Reservoirs 38

CASE STUDY The Aral Sea of Uzbekistan 40

Wetlands 41

Groundwater 41

Evaporation, Transpiration, and Consumptive Use 42

Condensation 45

GUEST ESSAY Fog Harvesting by

Dr. Robert S.

Schemenauer45

Climate and Weather 48

Overview 48

Climate 48

Air Currents 49

Ocean Currents 49

Tilt of the Earth’s Axis 52

Monitoring Climate Change 52

Urban Microclimates 53

GUEST ESSAY Urbanization and Its Effects on Key Atmospheric and Surface Water Cycles by Dr. J. Marshall

Shepherd 53

Weather 56

Temperature 56

Air Pressure 57

Humidity 58

Heating 59

Wind Speed and Direction 62

Weather Modification 62

Floods 64

Drought 66

C H A P T E R 3

SURFACE WATER HYDROLOGY 72

What Is Surface Water Hydrology? 72

Watersheds 73

Delineating A Watershed 74

Overland Flow 76

Rivers 76

Components of a River 76

River Morphology 77

Types of Rivers 80

Gradient 80

Lakes 81

Types of Lakes 81

Ecological Zones 82

Thermal Cycles 82

Seiches 83

Wetlands 84

Surface Water Measurement 85

Overland Flow 85

Expert Analysis 85

River Discharge 85

Water Storage in Lakes and Reservoirs 89

Flood Events 90

Flood Frequency 91

Probable Maximum Precipitation 91

Probable Maximum Flood 91

Transport and Deposition 92

Velocity 93

Sediment Load 94

CHAPTER 4 GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY 98

What Is Groundwater? 99

What Is Groundwater Hydrology? 100

The Geology of Groundwater 101

GUEST ESSAY Sinkholes by

Carlos Herd102

Glaciated Terrain104

Alluvial Valleys 107

Tectonic Activity 107

Groundwater Recharge 107

Aquifers 109

Aquifer Types 109

Properties of Aquifers 113

Groundwater Movement and Discharge 115

Age of Groundwater 119

Locating and Mapping Groundwater 120

G U E S T E S S AY Measuring Groundwater by

Kevin Donegan122

Constructing a Groundwater Well 124

Streamflow Depletion by Wells 126

Groundwater and Climate Change 128

GUEST ESSAY Seawater Intrusion by

Dr. Adrian D. Werner129

C H A P T E R 5

WATER QUALITY 133

Water Pollution 133

Point Source and Nonpoint Source Pollution

134

Point Source Pollution 135

Nonpoint Source Pollution 137

Basic Parameters of Water Quality 138

Temperature 138

Dissolved Oxygen 139

pH 139

Turbidity 140

Hardness 141

Inorganic Chemicals 142

Metals 142

Lead 142

Arsenic 143

Minerals 144

Salt 144

Fluoride 146

Selenium 147

Organic Chemicals 147

Natural Organic Chemicals 147

Synthetic Organic Compounds 147

Pesticides 148

Pharmaceuticals 150

Microbeads 150

Nutrients 150

Nitrogen 150

Phosphorus 151

The Nitrogen Cycle 152

Nitrogen Fixation 152

Mineralization/Ammonification 153

Nitrification 153

Denitrification 153

The Phosphorus Cycle 153

Eutrophication 154

 

Waterborne Diseases 154

Historical Problems 154

Microorganisms 155

Indicator Organisms 156

Other Waterborne Organisms 156

Water Quality Management 158

Fate and Transport 158

Fate and Transport in Surface Water 158

Fate and Transport in Groundwater 159

Wellhead Protection Programs 159

Watershed Protection Programs 160

Total Maximum Daily Loads 161

G U E S T E S S AY Lake Okeechobee TMDLs

by Dr. David Radcliffe and

Dr. Todd Rasmussen 161

Water Sampling 163

CHAPTER 6 MUNICIPAL AND IRRIGATION WATER DEVELOPMENT 169

Municipal Water Systems 170

CASE STUDY Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Los Angeles, California 170

CASE STUDY Lincoln Water System

Lincoln, Nebraska 176

CASE STUDY New York City Department of Environmental

Protection New York, New York 178

GUEST ESSAY Construction of City Tunnel #3 by

Eileen

M. Schnock181

Agricultural Crop Irrigation 186

Historical Perspective 186

The Need for Irrigation 186

Irrigation Techniques 187

Gravity Irrigation 190

Sprinkler Irrigation 194

Drip Irrigation 197

C H A P T E R 7

DAMS 201

Dam Basics 201

Purposes of Dams 201

Components of Dams 203

Types of Dams 204

Dam Operations and Construction 205

C A S E S T U DY Hoover Dam and

Lake Mead, Nevada/

Arizona 206

C A S E S T U DY Kingsley Dam and

Lake McConaughy,

Nebraska 210

C A S E S T U DY Grand Coulee Dam and

Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake,

Washington State 214

Environmental Impacts of Dams 216

G U E S T E S S AY Forced Urbanization: The

Three Gorges Dam

Relocation Process by Colin

Flahive 218

Dams and Locks for Navigation 221

G U E S T E S S AY Navigation on the

Tennessee

River by Ted

Nelson 223

CHAPTER 8 WATER ALLOCATION LAW 228

Ancient Water Allocation Law 229

Code of Hammurabi 229

Justinian Code 229

Ancient Riparian Doctrine 230

Water Allocation Law: 1200–1799 231

Spanish Water Law 231

First Possession 233

English Common Law: 1200–1799 233

Mill Acts of the Eastern United States 234

Water Allocation Law: 1800–1847 236

Code Napoléon 236

Riparian Doctrine: 1800–1847 236

Tyler v. Wilkinson 237

Water Allocation Law in the Western United States: 1800–1847 238

Water Allocation Law: 1848–1899 240

Riparian Doctrine 240

Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1848–1899 240

The California Gold Rush 242

The Colorado Gold Rush 245

Water Allocation Law: 1900–Present 249

Riparian Doctrine 249

Doctrine of Prior Appropriation: 1900–Present 251

Interstate River Compacts 254

Selected River Compacts 254

Colorado River Compact of 1922 254

Niagara River Water Diversion Treaty of 1950 257

Delaware River Compact of 1961 258

International Water Treaties 259

Groundwater Allocation Law 259

Historical Perspective 259

Role of the Federal Government 260

Legal Properties of Groundwater 260

Federal Reserved Water Rights 262

CHAPTER 9 FEDERAL WATER AGENCIES 266

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) 267

Overview 267

Brief History and Duties 267

Navigation Duties 268

Flood-Control Duties 270

Wetlands Protection Duties 275

U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) 276

Overview 276

Brief History 277

National Irrigation Congresses 278

The Reclamation Act of 1902 279

The Anti-Dam Construction Era 280

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 282

Overview 282

Brief History 283

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 286

Overview 286

Brief History 286

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) 289

Overview 289

Brief History 289

National Park Service (NPS) 291

Overview 291

Brief History 291

Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 293

Overview 293

Brief History 293

Natural Resources Conservation Service

(NRCS) 294

Overview 294

Brief History 294

U.S. Forest Service (USFS) 294

Overview 294

Brief History 295

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) 296

Overview and Brief History 296

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) 297

Overview and Brief History 297

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) 297

Overview and Brief History 297

Careers 300

GUEST ESSAY The Career Tree by

Courtney

Black300

CHAPTER 10 LOCAL, REGIONAL, STATE, AND MULTISTATE WATER

MANAGEMENT AGENCIES 306

Local Water Agencies 306

Municipal Water Departments 306

Historical Overview 306

Water and Sewer Districts 308

Overview 308

EXAMPLE Highline Water District, Kent, Washington 309

Levee and Flood-Control Districts 309

Historical Overview 309

Levee Districts 310

Flood-Control Districts 312

EXAMPLE Pima County Regional Flood Control District, Tucson, Arizona 312

Mutual Ditch and Irrigation Companies 313

Regional Water Agencies 314

Overview 314

Irrigation Districts 315

EXAMPLE Farwell Irrigation District, Farwell, Nebraska 315

Conservancy/Conservation Districts 316

EXAMPLE Miami Conservancy District,

Dayton, Ohio 316

Natural Resources Districts—Nebraska 317

E X A M P L E Papio-Missouri River Natural

Resources District, Omaha,

Nebraska 318

Groundwater Management Districts—

Kansas 318

E X A M P L E Northwest Kansas Groundwater

Management District No. 4,

Colby, Kansas 319

Water Management Districts—Florida 319

State Water Agencies 321

State of Arizona Water Agencies 321

State of Rhode Island Water Agencies 322

Multistate Water Agencies 323

Chesapeake Bay Commission 323

Tribal and First Peoples Water Issues 323

Water Management in Mexico and Canada 324

Overview 324

GUEST ESSAY Water Management in Mexico by

Dr. Alvaro

A. Aldama324

GUEST ESSAY Water Management in Canada by

Dr. Sandra

Smith329

CHAPTER 11 DRINKING-WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT 334

Introduction 334

Historical Perspective on Drinking-Water Treatment 334

Modern Day Drinking-Water Sources 338

GUEST ESSAY Borehole water contaminants and its implication on health on the rural communities of Malawi, Africa by

J. B. Chimphamba338

Desalination345

GUEST ESSAY Review of Advances in Science and Engineering for Brackish Water and Seawater Desalination Technologies by

Dr. Fares

Howari 347

Federal Protection of Drinking Water in the United States 350

Drinking-Water Treatment Processes 352

Protection of Water Quality 352

Intakes for Raw Water 352

CASE STUDY Department of Water Management, City of Chicago, Illinois 353

Pretreatment of Drinking Water 355

Flocculation/Coagulation 355

Filtration 356

CASE STUDY Sewerage and Water Board, City of New Orleans, Louisiana 356

Final Drinking-Water Treatment 358

Distribution Systems 358

G U E S T E S S AY BUAP Drinking Water Fountains by

Vladimir

Escalante-Pozos359

Historical Perspective on Wastewater Treatment 361

Wastewater Treatment Processes 364

Primary Treatment 364

Secondary Treatment 365

Tertiary Treatment 366

Nutrient Removal 366

Septic Tanks and Leach Fields 367

Wetlands and Water Treatment 367

CHAPTER 12 WATER, FISH AND WILDLIFE 371

Early Fish and Wildlife Protection 371

Fish and Wildlife Protection in the 20th Century 372

Wild and Scenic Rivers Act 373

National Environmental Policy Act 374

Endangered Species Act 377

Wetlands and Wildlife 379

CASE STUDY Snail Darters and the Little Tennessee River 383

CASE STUDY Whooping Cranes and the Platte River 386

CASE STUDY Salmon and the Columbia River 390

Human–Environment Relationship 395

GUEST ESSAY By

Dr. Milada Matouskova,

An Example of Water Ecosystem Restoration and Its Influence on Flood Protection in the Czech Republic 396

GUEST ESSAY Careers in Fish and Wildlife Management by

Larry Rogstad400

CHAPTER 13 THE ECONOMICS OF WATER 405

Introduction 405

The Value of Water 406

GUEST ESSAY Ecosystem-based water management in India in a climate constrained world by

Dr. Prakash

Rao407

Water as A Public Versus A Private Good 410

Privatization 410

Water Affordability 412

Water Marketing 414

Surface Water Marketing 414

Groundwater Marketing 416

Water Banking 418

Pollution Fees and Credits 418

The Water-Energy Nexus 419

The Triple Bottom Line 419

GUEST ESSAY Dr. Sarah Wolfe

Guest Essay—Water: A Wicked Problem by

Dr. Sarah

Wolfe420

CHAPTER 14 WICKED WATER PROBLEMS 424

Reasons for Water Use Conflicts 424

Texas 426

GUEST ESSAY Water Planning in Texas by

Connie Townsend, P.E.427

Alabama and Florida Versus Georgia 431

Northern and Southern California 435

Canada 437

The Middle East 438

Religious/Political Background 438

Water Resources in the Middle East 440

West Bank Mountain Aquifer 440

Jordan River 440

Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 442

Tragedy of the Commons 443

GUEST ESSAY Transboundary Water Management in Norway and the Nordic Countries by

Julie Gjørtz Howden444

CHAPTER 15 THE NEED FOR COOPERATION 449

The Human Factor 449

Ethics 450

The Power of the Individual 451

What Can I Do To Make A Difference? 452

REFERENCES 453

APPENDIX A

Reading Topographic Maps 470

Selected Environmental and Conservation Organizations 471

Ducks Unlimited 471

Environmental Defense Fund 471

National Audubon Society 471

National Wildlife Federation 472

Nature Conservancy 473

Natural Resources Defense Council 473

Sierra Club 473

Trout Unlimited 473

Wilderness Society 473

APPENDIX B

Guest Essay References 475

Illustration And Text Credits 479

Glossary 480

Index 492

Wiley Advantage:

  • Covers the fundamentals of surface water and groundwater hydrology
  • Explains the essentials of water chemistry, including pollution, contaminants, and quality management
  • Examines the central concepts of water allocation, irrigation, municipal water development, and the government agencies that regulate it
  • Explores current and historical drinking water and wastewater treatment practices
  • Delves into the relationship between water and the environment, the economy, and the increasing rise of water conflicts at home and abroad
  • An Instructor Companion Site features a wealth of resources including lecture slides, sample exams, and more