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Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd Edition

Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-12867-1

Apr 2010

528 pages

Select type: Hardcover


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Process control has increased in importance over the past 30 years, driven by global competition, rapidly changing economic conditions, more stringent environmental and safety regulations, and the need for more flexible yet more complex processes to manufacture high value-added products. In order to accommodate these important trends, the Third Edition is divided into reasonably short chapters to make the book more readable and to enhance its use in a modular fashion. This organization gives the instructor the flexibility to cover just the topics that correspond to their syllabus without a loss of continuity. Student book costs can be reduced by using Wiley Custom to select partial or full electronic editions, or to create your own custom version of the text including only the material you cover.

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1. Introduction to Process Control.

1.1 Representative Process Control Problems.

1.2 Illustrative Example.

1.3 Classification of Process Control Strategies.

1.4 A More Complicated Example--A Distillation Column.

1.5 The Hierarchy of Process Control Activities.

1.6 An Overview of Control System Design.

2. Theoretical Models of Chemical Processes.

2.1 The Rationale for Process Modeling.

2.2 General Modeling Principles.

2.3 Degrees of Freedom Analysis.

2.4 Dynamic Models of Representative Processes.

2.5 Solution of Dynamic Models and the Use of Digital Simulators.


3. Laplace Transforms.

3.1 The Laplace Transform of Representative Functions.

3.2 Solution of Differential Equations by Laplace Transform Techniques.

3.3 Partial Fraction Expansion.

3.4 Other Laplace Transform Properties.

3.5 A Transient Response Example.

4. Transfer Function and State-Space Models.

4.1 Illustrative Example: A Continuous Blending System.

4.2 Transfer Functions of Complicated Models.

4.3 Properties of Transfer Functions.

4.3 Linearization of Nonlinear Models.

5. Dynamic Behavior of First-Order and Second-Order Processes.

5.1 Standard Process Inputs.

5.2 Response of First-Order Processes.

5.3 Response of Integrating Processes.

5.4 Response of Second-Order Processes.

6. Dynamic Response Characteristics of More Complicated Processes.

6.1 Poles and Zeros and Their Effect on Process Response.

6.2 Processes with Time Delays.

6.3 Approximation of Higher-Order Transfer Functions.

6.4 Interacting and Noninteracting Processes.

6.5 State-Space and Transfer Function Matrix Models.

6.6 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Processes.

7. Development of Empirical Dynamic Models from Process Data.

7.1 Model Development Using Linear or Nonlinear Regression.

7.2 Methods for Fitting First-Order and Second-Order Models Using Step Tests.

7.3 Neural Network Models. Development of Discrete-Time Dynamic Models. Identifying Discrete-Time Models from Experimental Data.


8. Feedback Controllers.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Basic Control Modes.

8.3 Features of PID Controllers.

8.4 On-Off Controllers.

8.5 Typical Responses of Feedback Control Systems.

8.6 Digital Versions of PID Controllers.

9. Control System Instrumentation.

9.1 Sensors, Transmitters, and Transducers.

9.2 Final Control Elements.

9.3 Signal Transmission and Digital Communication.

9.4 Accuracy in Instrumentation.

10. Process Safety and Process Control.

10.1 Layers of Protection

10.2 Alarm Management

10.3 Abnormal Event Detection

10.4 Risk Assessment

11. Dynamic Behavior and Stability of Closed-Loop Control Systems.

11.1 Block Diagram Representation.

11.2 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions.

11.3 Closed Loop Responses of Simple Control Systems.

11.4 Stability Criteria.

11.5 Pole-Zero Diagrams.

12. PID Controller Design, Tuning, and Troubleshooting.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The Influence of Process Design on Process Control.

12.3 Model-Based Design Methods.

12.4 Controller Tuning Relations.

12.5 On-Line Controller Tuning.

12.6 Guidelines for Common Control Loops.

12.7 Troubleshooting Control Loops.

13. Control at the Process Unit Level.

13.1 Degrees of Freedom for Process Control

13.2 Selection of Controlled, Manipulated, and Measured Variables

13.3 Case Studies.

14. Frequency Response Analysis and Control System Design.

14.1 Sinusoidal Forcing of a First-Order Process.

14.2 Sinusoidal Forcing of an nth-Order Process.

14.3 Bode Diagrams.

14.4 Frequency Response Characteristics of Feedback Controllers.

14.5 Bode Stability Criterion.

14.6 Gain and Phase Margins.

15. Feedforward and Ratio Control.

15.1 Introduction to Feedforward Control.

15.2 Ratio Control.

15.3 Feedforward Controller Design Based on Steady-State Models.

15.4 Controller Design Based on Dynamic Models.

15.5 The Relationship Between the Steady-State and Dynamic Design Methods.

15.6 Configurations for Feedforward-Feedback Control.

15.7 Tuning Feedforward Controllers.


16. Enhanced Single-Loop Control Strategies.

16.1 Cascade Control.

16.2 Time-Delay Compensation.

16.3 Inferential Control.

16.4 Selective Control/Override Systems.

16.5 Nonlinear Control Systems.

16.6 Adaptive Control Systems.

17. Digital Sampling, Filtering, and Control.

17.1 Sampling and Signal Reconstruction.

17.2 Signal Processing and Data Filtering.

17.3 z-Transform Analysis for Digital Control.

17.4 Digital PID and Related Controllers.

17.5 Direct Synthesis for Design of Digital Controllers.

17.6 Minimum Variance Control.

18. Multiloop and Multivariable Control.

18.1 Process Interactions and Control Loop Interactions.

18.2 Pairing of Controlled and Manipulated Variables.

18.3 Singular Value Analysis.

18.4 Tuning of Multiloop PID Control Systems.

18.5 Decoupling and Multivariable Control Strategies.

18.6 Strategies for Reducing Control Loop Interactions.

19. Real-Time Optimization.

19.1 Basic Requirements in Real-Time Optimization.

19.2 The Formulation and Solution of RTO Problems.

19.3 Unconstrained Optimization.

19.4 Linear Programming.

19.5 Quadratic Programming/Nonlinear Programming.

20. Model Predictive Control.

20.1 Overview of Model Predictive Control.

20.2 Predictions for SISO Models.

20.3 Predictions for MIMO Models.

20.4 Model Predictive Control Calculations.

20.5 Set-Point Calculations.

20.6 Selection of Design and Tuning Parameters.

20.7 Implementation of MPC.

21. Process Monitoring.

21.1 Traditional Monitoring Techniques.

21.2 Quality Control Charts.

21.3 Extensions of Statistical Process Control.

21.4 Multivariate Statistical Techniques.

21.5 Control Performance Monitoring.

22. Batch Process Control.

22.1 Batch Control Systems.

22.2 Sequential and Logic Control.

22.3 During the Batch Control.


23. Biosystems Control Design.

24.Dynamics and Control of Biological Systems.

Appendix A: Digital Process Control Systems: Hardware and Software.

Appendix B: Review of Thermodynamics Concepts for Conservation Equations.

Appendix C: Control Simulation Software.

Appendix D: Instrumentation Symbols.

Appendix E: Process Control Modules.

Appendix F: Review of Basic Concepts from Probability and Statistics.

Additional Appendixes available online at

Appendix G: Introduction to Plantwide Control

Appendix H: Plantwide Control System Design

Appendix I: Dynamic Models and Parameters Used for Plantwide Control Chapters

Appendix J: Additional Closed-Loop Frequency Response Material (Second edition, Chapter 14)

Appendix K: Contour Mapping and the Principle of the Argument

  • Two new chapters on the dynamics and control of biological systems.
  • New chapters on process safety and control applications at the process unit level.
  • Up-to-date information on real-time optimization, model predictive control, and process monitoring to highlight the significant impact these techniques now have on industrial practice.
  • Numerous examples and simulations based on MATLAB® and LabVIEW® software packages, as well as a series of Process Control Modules based on distillation column and furnace simulations.
  • New exercises to reinforce concepts and an updated solution manual.
  • Power point slides available for instructors to modify and use.
  • Organization allows for instructor to cover basic material while having the flexibility to include advanced topics.
  • This text provides the basis for 10 to 30 weeks of instruction for a single course or a sequence of courses at either the undergraduate or first-year graduate levels.
  • The content is suitable for self-study by engineers in industry.
  • The text is divided into reasonably short chapters to make it more readable and modular. The organization also allows some chapters to be omitted without loss of continuity.
  • The mathematical level is oriented toward a junior or senior student in chemical engineering who has taken at least one course in differential equations.
  • The text emphasizes process control techniques that are used in practice and provides detailed mathematical analysis only when it is essential for understanding the material.
  • Key theoretical concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and simulations.