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Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 3

Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 3

K. L. Mittal (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-52644-5 July 2018 432 Pages

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Description

With the ever-increasing amount of research being published, it is a Herculean task to be fully conversant with the latest research developments in any field, and the arena of adhesion and adhesives is no exception. Thus, topical review articles provide an alternate and very efficient way to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art in many subjects representing the field of adhesion science and adhesives.

Based on the success of the preceding volumes in this series “Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives”), the present volume comprises 12 review articles published in Volume 5 (2017) of Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives.

 The subject of these 12 reviews fall into the following general areas.

  1. Nanoparticles in reinforced polymeric composites.
  2. Wettability behavior and its modification, including superhydrophobic surfaces.
  3. Ways to promote adhesion, including tuber adhesion.
  4. Adhesives and adhesive joints
  5. Dental adhesion.

The topics covered include: Nanoparticles as interphase modifiers in fiber reinforced polymeric composites; fabrication of micro/nano patterns on polymeric substrates to control wettability behavior; plasma processing of aluminum alloys to promote adhesion; UV-curing of adhesives; functionally graded adhesively bonded joints; adhesion between unvulgarized elastomers; electrowetting for digital microfluidics; control of biofilm at the tooth-restoration bonding interface; easy-to-clean superhydrophobic coatings; cyanoacrylates; promotion of resin-dentin bond longevity in adhesive dentistry; and effects of nanoparticles on nanocomposites Mode I and Mode II fractures.

Preface xiii

1 Nanoparticles as Interphase Modifiers in Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites: A Critical Review 1
Kyle B. Caldwell and John C. Berg

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Grown Interphases from Fiber Surfaces 3

1.2.1 Introduction 3

1.2.2 ZnO Nanowhiskers 5

1.2.2.1 Effects of NW Diameter and Length 6

1.2.2.2 Effects of Reinforcing Fiber Surface Chemistry and Roughness 9

1.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes 10

1.2.3.1 Effects of CNT Length 11

1.2.3.2 Effects of CVD Conditions 14

1.2.4 Electroless Plating 15

1.2.5 Conclusions: Grown Interphases from Fiber Surfaces 17

1.3 Deposited Interphases 19

1.3.1 Introduction 19

1.3.2 Advanced Sizing Packages 20

1.3.3 Electrophoretic Deposition 22

1.3.4 Electrostatic Attraction 26

1.3.4.1 Layer-by-layer Deposition 26

1.3.5 Reaction Deposited Interphases 28

1.3.6 Conclusions: Deposited Interphases 30

1.4 Self-assembled Interphases 30

1.4.1 Introduction 30

1.4.2 Migrating Agents 32

1.4.3 Phase Separation 34

1.4.4 Depletion Interaction 35

1.4.5 Conclusions: Self-assembled Interphases 40

1.5 Summary 41

Acknowledgments 43

List of Abbreviations (Alphabetized) 44

References 44

2 Fabrication of Micro/Nano Patterns on Polymeric Substrates Using Laser Ablation Methods to Control Wettability Behaviour: A Critical Review 53
Salma Falah Toosi, Sona Moradi and Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos

2.1 Introduction 53

2.2 Wetting States, Regimes, and Roughness 54

2.2.1 Contact Angle 54

2.2.2 Contact Angle Hysteresis 57

2.3 Laser Ablation: Experimental Setup 58

2.4 Laser Ablation of Polymeric Surfaces 59

2.4.1 Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 61

2.4.2 Polylactide (PLA and PLLA) 64

2.4.3 Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) 66

2.4.4 Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) 67

2.5 Summary 69

References 70

3 Plasma Processing of Aluminum Alloys to Promote Adhesion: A Critical Review 77
Vinay Kumar Patel and Shantanu Bhowmik

3.1 Introduction 78

3.2 Plasma Processing of Aluminum for Improved Wettability and Adhesion 79

3.3 Plasma Processing of Aluminum Alloy for Improved Corrosion Resistance 85

3.4 Plasma Processing of Aluminum Alloy for Improved Bond Strength 87

3.5 Plasma Processing of Aluminum Alloy for Enhanced Tribological and Mechanical Performance 89

3.6 Summary 95

References 97

4 UV-Curing of Adhesives: A Critical Review 101
Alessandra Vitale, Giuseppe Trusiano and Roberta Bongiovanni

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Basics of Radiation Curing 102

4.3 UV-Curing for the Production of Adhesives 112

4.4 Adhesives Obtained by a Single Direct UV-Curing Step 120

4.5 Adhesives Obtained by a Dual-Cure Process 129

4.5.1 UV-Curing and Thermal Cure 130

4.5.2 UV-Curing and Anaerobic Cure 131

4.5.3 UV-Curing and Moisture Cure 132

4.5.4 Other Types of Dual-Cure 133

4.6 Photocurable Adhesives for Medical Applications 135

4.6.1 Tissue Adhesives 135

4.6.2 Bioinspired Tissue Adhesives 136

4.6.3 Dental Adhesives 138

4.7 Light-Induced Reversible Bonding/Debonding 140

4.8 Summary 143

References 144

5 Stress and Failure Analyses of Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Joints of Laminated FRP Composite Plates and Tubes: A Critical Review 155
S.V. Nimje and S. K. Panigrahi

5.1 Introduction 156

5.2 Stress Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints 157

5.2.1 Stress Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints of Laminated FRP Composite Plates 157

5.2.2 Stress Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints of Laminated FRP Composite Tubes 162

5.3 Failure Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Joints of Laminated FRP Composite Plates 163

5.4 Failure Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Tubular Joints of Laminated FRP Composites 165

5.5 Failure Analysis of Functionally Graded Bonded Joints 166

5.5.1 Effect of Functionally Graded Plates/Tubes on Joint Failure 167

5.5.2 Effect of Functionally Graded Adhesive on Joint Failure 168

5.6 Summary 178

References 179

6 Adhesion Between Unvulcanized Elastomers: A Critical Review 185
K. Dinesh Kumar, Ganesh C. Basak and Anil K. Bhowmick

6.1 Introduction 186

6.2 Autohesive Tack 187

6.2.1 Autohesive Tack Criteria 188

6.2.2 Theories Related to Autohesive Tack 189

6.2.2.1 Diffusion Theory 189

6.2.2.2 Contact Theory 190

6.2.3 Factors Affecting Autohesive Tack Bond Formation Process 192

6.2.3.1 Effect of Contact Time 192

6.2.3.2 Effect of Contact Pressure 195

6.2.3.3 Effect of Contact Temperature 195

6.2.3.4 Effect of Surface Roughness 197

6.2.4 Factors Affecting Autohesive Tack Bond Destruction Process 198

6.2.4.1 Effect of Test Rate 198

6.2.4.2 Effect of Test Temperature 198

6.2.4.3 Effect of Bond Thickness 198

6.2.5 Effect of Molecular Properties on Autohesive Tack 199

6.2.5.1 Effect of Molecular Weight 199

6.2.5.2 Effect of Microstructure 200

6.2.5.3 Effect of Crystallinity 200

6.2.5.4 Effect of Polar Groups 201

6.2.6 Environmental Effects on Autohesive Tack 202

6.2.6.1 Effect of Surface Oxidation 202

6.2.6.2 Effect of Humidity 202

6.2.7 Effect of Compounding Ingredients on Autohesive Tack 202

6.2.7.1 Effect of Processing Oil 202

6.2.7.2 Effect of Tackifiers 202

6.2.7.2.1 Tackification Mechanism in Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 203

6.2.7.2.2 Effect of Tackifiers on Autohesive Tack of Elastomers Used in the Rubber Industry 207

6.2.8 Effect of Fillers 230

6.2.8.1 Effect of Carbon Black and Silica on Autohesive Tack of Elastomers Used in the Rubber Industry 230

6.2.8.2 Effect of Nanoclay on Autohesive Tack of Elastomers Used in the Rubber Industry 233

6.3 Self - Healing Elastomers: Future Scope Based on Tack Behavior of Elastomers 240

6.4 Summary 242

Acknowledgements 244

List of Symbols 245

List of Abbreviations 246

References 247

7 Dielectrowetting for Digital Microfluidics: Principle and Application. A Critical Review 253
Hongyao Geng and Sung Kwon Cho

7.1 Introduction 254

7.2 Electrostatic Forces on a Liquid 257

7.3 Electrowetting on Dielectric (EWOD) 258

7.4 Liquid-Dielectrophoresis (L-DEP) 261

7.5 L-DEP in Microfluidics 265

7.6 Dielectrowetting 266

7.7 Droplet Manipulations by Dielectrowetting 273

7.7.1 Experimental Setup 273

7.7.2 Droplet Splitting and Transporting 275

7.7.3 Multi-Splitting and Merging of Droplets 275

7.7.4 Droplet Creating 276

7.7.5 Manipulations of Aqueous Droplets 277

7.8 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 278

7.9 Acknowledgement 281

References 281

8 Control of Biofilm at the Tooth-Restoration Bonding Interface: A Question for Antibacterial  Monomers? A Critical Review 287
Mary Anne S. Melo, Michael D. WeirFang Li, Lei Cheng, Ke Zhang and Hockin H. K. Xu

8.1 Introduction 288

8.2 Tooth-Restoration Bonding Interface Failure: The Bacterial Factor 290

8.3 Mechanism of Adhesive-Bacteria Interaction 292

8.4 Current Antibacterial Approaches via Components of Tooth/Restoration Interface Bonding Materials (Dental Primers and Adhesives) 293

8.5 Incorporation of Quaternary Ammonium-Based Monomers and its Impact on the Mechanical Properties 295

8.6 Long-Lasting Antibacterial Activity 297

8.7 Biocompatibility 298

8.8 Limitations 299

8.9 Prospects 301

8.10 Summary 301

References 301

9 Easy-to-Clean Superhydrophobic Coatings Based on Sol-Gel Technology: A Critical Review 307
S. Czyzyk, A.Dotan, H. Dodiuk, and S. Kenig

9.1 Introduction 308

9.2 Superhydrophobicity: Key Concepts 308

9.2.1 Morphology Characterization of a Superhydrophobic Surface 312

9.2.1.1 Roughness Characterization 313

9.2.1.2 Porosity Characterization 315

9.2.2 Superhydrophobicity Fabrication Methods 315

9.2.2.1 Top-Down 315

9.2.2.2 Bottom-Up 316

9.3 Sol-Gel Process 316

9.3.1 Process Stages 317

9.3.1.1 Factors Affecting the Reaction Kinetics and the Final Product 319

9.3.1.1.1 Main Factors Affecting the Sol-Gel Process 319

9.3.2 Organofunctional Alkoxysilane – A Hybrid Sol-Gel 322

9.3.2.1 Hybrid Sol-Gel Fabrication Methods 323

9.3.2.2 Easy-to-Clean Superhydrophobic Sol-Gel Coatings 327

9.3.2.3 Properties of Superhydrophobic Coatings Fabricated via Sol-Gel Method 329

9.4 Summary 333

Acknowledgement 334

List of Abbreviations 334

References 335

10 Cyanoacrylates: Towards High Temperature Resistant Instant Adhesives. A Critical Review 341
Barry Burns

10.1 Introduction 341

10.2 Industrial Production of Cyanoacrylates 343

10.3 Reactivity and Polymerisation of Cyanoacrylates 344

10.4 Durability and Degradation of Polycyanoacrylate Polymers 347

10.4.1 Durability of Cyanoacrylate Adhesive Bonds 349

10.4.2 Hot Strength Performance 349

10.4.3 Thermal Resistance Performance 350

10.5 Strategies to Improve Thermal Durability 351

10.5.1 Crosslinking Strategies 352

10.5.1.1 Multifunctional or Bis-Cyanoacrylate Cross-Linking Approaches 352

10.5.1.2 Alkyl-2-Cyanopentadienoate Cross-Linking Approaches 353

10.5.1.3 Allyl Cyanoacrylate Crosslinking Approaches 356

10.5.2 Additive Strategies 357

10.6 Summary 361

Acknowledgements 364

References 364

11 Strategies to Inactivate the Endogenous Dentin Proteases to Promote Resin-Dentin Bond Longevity in Adhesive Dentistry: A Critical Review 369
Regina Guenka Palma-Dibb, Lourenço de Moraes Rego Roselino, Pedro Turrini Neto and Juliana Jendiroba Faraoni

11.1 Introduction 369

11.2 Enzymes in Dentin 370

11.3 Enzymes Inactivation/Collagen Cross-Linking 373

11.3.1 Natural Crosslinkers 374

11.3.1.1 Proanthocianidin – Grape Seed Extract (PA) 374

11.3.1.2 Chitosan (CH) 375

11.3.1.3 Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) 376

11.3.1.4 Low Dose Riboflavin/UVA-Activated Riboflavin 376

11.3.1.5 Genipin 377

11.3.1.6 Hesperidin 377

11.3.1.7 Galardin 377

11.3.2 Synthetic Crosslinkers 377

11.3.2.1 Chlorhexidine (CHX) 377

11.3.2.2 Glutaraldehyde (GA) 378

11.3.2.3 Carbodiimide 378

11.3.2.4 Quaternary Ammoniun Compounds (QACs) 379

11.3.2.5 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) 380

11.3.2.6 Tetracycline 380

11.4 Clinical Considerations 380

11.5 Summary 380

Acknowledgment 382

References 382

12 Effects of Nanoparticles on Nanocomposites Mode I and II Fracture: A Critical Review 391
P. Ghabezi and M. Farahani

12.1 Introduction 391

12.2 Energy Release Rate 392

12.3 Traction-Separation Laws 394

12.4 Effect of Nanoparticles on Mode I and II Fracture 396

12.5 Traction – Separation Laws in Mode I and II (Case Study) 405

12.5.1 Materials, Geometry and Test Parameters 406

12.6 Summary 407

Acknowledgement 408

Nomenclature 408

References 408