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Properties of Earth and Planetary Materials at High Pressure and Temperature

Properties of Earth and Planetary Materials at High Pressure and Temperature

Murli H. Manghnani (Editor), Takehiko Yagi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66442-1 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 562 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 101.

High pressure-tempertatur research is vital to understanding the formation and evolution of the Earth and planetary interiors. Recent advances in research techniques have enabled mineral physicists to simulate conditions prevailing throughout the Earth's interior. This volume presents new laboratory data as well as geophysical and geochemical field observations and their implications describing the nature and composition of the Earth and planetary interiors. These advances in state-of-the-art high pressure-temperature research and applications will interest mineral physicists, petrologists, geochemists, and planetologists.

Murli H. Manghnani and Takehiko Yagi xi

Advances in High Pressure-Temperature Techniques

X Ray Diffraction Measurements in a Double-Stage Multianvil Apparatus Using ADC Anvils
T. Irifune, K. Kuroda, N. Nishiyama, T Inoue, N. Funamori, T. Uchida, T. Yagi, W. Utsumi, N. Miyajima, K. Fujino, S. Urakawa, T Kikegawa, and O. Shimomura 1

Single-Crystal Elasticity of the a and P of Mg2SiC>4 Polymorphs at High Pressure
Chang-Sheng Zha, Thomas S. Duffy, Robert T Downs, Ho-kwang Mao, Russell J. Hemley, and Donald J. Weidner 9

Temperature Distribution in the Laser-Heated Diamond Cell
Michael Manga and Raymond Jeanloz 17

X Ray Diffraction With a Double Hot-Plate Laser-Heated Diamond Cell
Ho-kwang Mao, Guoyin Shen, Russell J. Hemley, and Thomas S. Duffy  27

Performance of Tapered Anvils in a DIA-Type, Cubic-Anvil,
High-Pressure Apparatus for X Ray Diffraction Studies
Yanbin Wang, Ivan C. Getting, Donald J. Weidner, and Michael T. Vaughan 35

Sound Velocity Measurements at Mantle Transition Zone Conditions of Pressure
and Temperature Using Ultrasonic Interferometry in a Multianvil Apparatus
Baosheng Li, Ganglin Chen, Gabriel D. Gwanmesia, and Robert C. Liebermann 41

Can the Multianvil Apparatus Really Be Used for High-Pressure Deformation Experiments?
W. B. Durham and D. C Rubie 63

GHz Ultrasonic Interferometry in a Diamond Anvil Cell: P-Wave Velocities
in Periclase to 4.4 GPa and 207° C
A.H. Shen, H.-J. Reichmann, G. Chen, R. J. Angel, W.A. Bassett, and H. Spetzler 71

A New Facility for High-Pressure Research at the Advanced Photon Source
Mark L. Rivers, Thomas S. Duffy, Yanbin Wang, Peter J. Eng, Stephen R. Sutton, and Guoyin Shen 79

High Pressure Toroid Cell: Applications in Planetary and Material Sciences
L. G. Khvostantsev, V. A. Sidorov, and O. B. Tsiok 89

Cryogenic Recovery of Unquenchable High-Pressure Samples Using a Multianvil Device
Kurt Leinenweber, Udo Schuelke, Shirley Ekbundit, and Paul F. McMillan 97

In-Situ Properties of Earth and Planetary Materials Under Controlled P-T Conditions

Compression of PON Cristobalite to 70 GPa
Kathleen J. Kingma, Rosemary E. Gerald Pacalo, and Paul F. McMillan 105

Measurements of Acoustic Wave Velocities at P-T Conditions of the Earth's Mantle
Ruth Knoche, Sharon L. Webb, and David C. Rubie 119

High-Pressure Raman Scattering Study of Majorite-Carnet Solid Solutions
in the System Mg4Si40i2-MgAl2Si30i2
M. H. Manghnani, V. Vijayakumar, and J. D. Bass 129

The Imaging Plate System Interfaced to the Large-Volume Press at Beamline X17B1
of the National Synchrotron Light Source
J. Chen, J. B. Parise, R. Li, D.J. Weidner, andM. Vaughan 139

Theoretical and Planetary Aspects of Ultrahigh Pressure Research

Computational Modeling of Crystals and Liquids in the System Na20-CaO-MgO-Al203-Si02
Masanori Matsui 145

First-Principles Studies on the Transformations of Graphite to Diamond
Y. Tateyama, T. Ogitsu, K. Kusakabe, and S. Tsuneyuki 153

First-Principles Investigations of Solid Iron at High Pressure and Implications for the Earth's Inner Core
Lars Stixrude, Evgeny Wasserman, and Ronald E. Cohen 159

Static Compression Experiments on Low-Z Planetary Materials
Russell J. Hemley and Ho-kwang Mao 173

Melts, Melting, and Partitioning/Segregation

The Melting Curve and Premelting of MgO
Ronald E. Cohen and J. S. Weitz 185

Laser-Heating Through a Diamond-Anvil Cell: Melting at High Pressures
J. S. Sweeney and D. L. Heinz 197

Metal/Silicate Partitioning of Mn, Co, and Ni at High-Pressures and
High Temperatures and Implications for Core Formation in a Deep Magma Ocean
E. Ito, T. Katsura, and T. Suzuki 215

Flotation of Olivine and Diamond in Mantle Melt at High Pressure:
Implications for Fractionation in the Deep Mantle and Ultradeep Origin of Diamond
Eiji Ohtani, Akio Suzuki, and Takumi Kato 227

X Ray Diffraction Analysis of Molten KG and KBr Under Pressure:
Pressure-Induced Structural Transition in Melt
Satoru Urakawa, Naoki Igawa, Osamu Shimomura, and Hideo Ohno 241

Hydrogen in Molten Iron at High Pressure: The First Measurement
Takuo Okuchi and Eiichi Takahashi 249

Element Partitioning Between Some Mantle Minerals and the Coexisting Silicate Melt Under Pressure
Toshihiro Suzuki and Masaki Akaogi 261

Iron and Earth's Core
Thermodynamics of Iron Phases at High Pressures and Temperatures
S. K. Saxena and L. S. Dubrovinsky 271

Isothermal Compression Curve of AbSiOs Kyanite
T. Yagi, S. Inutsuka, and T. Kondo 281

Melting of Rare Gas Solids Ar, Kr, Xe at High Pressures and Fixed Points in the P-T Plane
Andrew P. Jephcoat and Stanislav P. Besedin 287

Structures and Phase Equilibria of FeS Under High Pressure and Temperature
Keiji Kusaba, Yasuhiko Syono, Takumi Kikegawa, and Osamu Shimomura 297

Molar Volume, Thermal Expansion, and Bulk Modulus in Liquid Fe-Ni Alloys at 1 Bar:

Evidence for Magnetic Anomalies?
P. M. Nasch and M. H. Manghnani 307

Shock Wave and Equation of State Measurements

Pressure-Induced Phase Transition of B1 Oxides in Relation to Shock Compression Behavior of MnO
Yasuhiko Syono, Yuichi Noguchi, and Keiji Kusaba 319

Volume Measurement of MgO at High Pressures and High Temperatures
Wataru Utsumi, Donald J. Weidner, and Robert C Liebermann 327

Properties of LiF and AI2O3 to 240 GPa for Metal Shock Temperature Measurements
Kathleen G. Holland and Thomas J. Ahrens 335

Elastic Properties of Forsterite at High Pressure Obtained From the High-Temperature Database
Hyunchae Cynn, Donald G. Isaak, and Orson L. Anderson 345

Hydrogen at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for Jupiter
W.J. Nell is, S. T Weir, N. C. Holmes, M. Ross, and A. C. Mitchell 357

Advances in Equation-of-State Measurements in SAM-85
Yanbin Wang, Donald J. Weidner, and Yue Meng 365

Phase Equilibria at High Pressure and Temperature

Postspinel Transformations in the System Mg2Si04-Fe2Si04:
Element Partitioning, Calorimetry, and Thermodynamic Calculation
M. Akaogi, H. Kojitani, K. Matsuzaka, and T Suzuki 373

Pressure-Induced Structural Modifications of Metagermanates at Room Temperature:
In Situ XRD and EXAFS Studies
T. Nagai, O. Ohtaka, A. Yoshiasa, T. Yamanaka, and O. Shimomura  385

The Stability of Almandine at High Pressures and Temperatures
Pamela G. Conrad 393

A High-Pressure High-Temperature X Ray Study of Phase Relations and Polymorphism of Hf02
J. Tang, M. Kai, Y. Kobayashi, S. Endo, O. Shimomura, T. Kikegawa, and T. Ashida 401

Analytical Electron Microscopy of the Garnet-Perovskite Transformation
in a Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell
Kiyoshi Fujino, Nobuyoshi Miyajima, Takehiko Yagi, Tadashi Kondo, and Nobumasa Funamori 409

Phase Transition of Pyrope Garnet Under Lower Mantle Conditions
Tadashi Kondo and Takehiko Yagi 419

In Situ Observation of Zr02 Phases at High Pressure and Temperature
Osamu Ohtaka, Takaya Nagai, Takamitsu Yamanaka, Takehiko Yagi, and Osamu Shimomura 429

Post-Spinel Transition in Fe2Si04
Tomoo Katsura, Atsushi Ueda, Fiji Ito, and Koh-ichi Morooka 435

An In Situ High Pressure X Ray Diffraction Study on Perovskite-Structured PbZr03 and PbTi03 to 57 GPa
L. C. Ming, S. R. Shieh, Y. Kobayashi, S. Endo, O. Shimomura, and T. Kikegawa 441

Rheological and Electrical Properties

Phase Relations and Physical Properties of Fe2Si04-Fe304
Solid Solution Under Pressures up to 12 GPa
T. Yamanaka, H. Tobe, T. Shimazu, A. Nakatsuka, Y. Dobuchi, O. Ohtaka, T. Nagai, and E. Ito 451

Plastic Flow of Mn2Ge04 I: Toward a Rheological Model of the Earth's Transition Zone
Quart Bai and Harry W. Green II 461

Rheology Measurements at High Pressure and Temperature
Donald J. Weidner, Yanbin Wang, Ganglin Chen, Junichi Ando, and Michael T. Vaughan 473

Yield Strength, Slip Systems and Deformation Induced Phase Transition
of San Carlos Olivine up to the Transition Zone Pressure at Room Temperature
Mu Chai, J. Michael Brown, and Yanbin Wang 483

High Pressure Viscosity of an Fe-S Liquid:
Experimentally Derived Estimate of the Viscosity of Earth's Outer Core
R. A. Secco, G. E. LeBlanc, H. Yang, and J. N. Seibel 495

Roles of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Water

Stability of Hydration States and Hysteresis of Rehydration in Montmorillonites
as a Function of Temperature, H2O Pressure, and Inter layer Cations
W. A. Bassett and T.-C Wu 507

Properties of Hydrous Phases

Effect of Pressure on the Crystal Structure of Hydrous Wadsleyite, Mg1.75SiH0.5O4
Yasuhiro Kudoh and Toru Inoue 517

Raman Spectra of Hydrous P-Mg2Si04 at Various Pressures and Temperatures
Lin-gun Liu, T. P. Mernagh, C.-C. Lin, Ji-an Xu, and T. Inoue 523


High-Pressure Infrared Spectra of Feldspars: Constraints on Compressional Behavior,
Amorphization, and Diaplectic Glass Formation
Q. Williams 531

Observation of Phase Transformations in Serpentine at High Pressure
and High Temperature by In Situ X Ray Diffraction Measurements
Koji Kuroda and Tetsuo Irifune 545

Subject Index 555

Author Index 561