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Psychology

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Psychology

Graham C. Davey

ISBN: 978-1-118-93559-0 October 2018 1080 Pages

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Description

Psychology continues to be one of the most popular fields of study at colleges and universities the world over, and Psychology offers a comprehensive overview of the historical, methodological, and conceptual core of modern psychology. This textbook enables students to gain foundational knowledge of psychological investigation, exploring both the biological basis and mental processes underlying our thoughts and behaviours. Officially endorsed by the British Psychological Society, this book covers topics ranging from biological, cognitive and developmental psychology to the psychology of social interactions, psychopathology and mental health treatments. Each chapter provides detailed examination of essential topics, chapter summaries, real-world case studies, descriptions of research methods, and interactive learning activities to strengthen student comprehension and retention.

This textbook offers a wealth of supplementary material for instructors of introductory and advanced undergraduate courses in psychology. An instructor’s manual includes lecture outlines, classroom discussion topics, homework assignments and test bank questions, while online access to additional digital content provides a complete resource to facilitate effective teaching and learning.

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Contents

List of Contributors xxi

Preface xxiii

Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology 1
Dominic Upton, Charlotte Taylor, Felicity Penn, and Abbye Andrews

What Is Psychology? 2

Psychology’s Roots: The Path to a Science of Mind and Behaviour 5

Levels of Analysis: Types of Psychology and Their Contribution to Understanding 13

Issues and Debates in Psychology 16

Bias in Psychological Research 22

Psychology at the Cultural Level 25

Psychology Today 29

Psychology in Action: Applying Psychological Science 32

Future Developments 40

Chapter Summary 42

Chapter 2 Research Methods in Psychology 51
Graham Hole

The Scientific Method 52

The Dissemination of Scientific Ideas 55

Quantitative Research Methods 56

Analysing and Interpreting Quantitative Data 77

Qualitative Research Methods 82

Good and Bad Practice in Psychological Research 87

Future Developments 95

Chapter Summary 98

Chapter 3 Evolutionary and Genetic Foundations of Psychology 107
Daniel Nettle

Introduction 108

What Makes You Unique? The Origins of Variation 112

Passing It On: The Mechanisms of Heredity 120

Staying Alive: The Operation of Natural Selection 129

Staying Alive: Selection of Behaviours and Adaptation 134

The Value of Evolution for Psychology 138

Future Directions 147

Chapter Summary 150

Chapter 4 Neuroscience, the Brain, and Behaviour 157
Jamie Ward and Sarah King

Introduction 158

Neurons and Synaptic Transmission 159

Structure of the neuron 160

An Overview of Brain Structures and Their Functions 173

Animal Neuroscience Methods 179

Human Neuroscience Methods 184

Hemispheric Lateralization 192

Plasticity and the Brain 196

Future Directions 199

Chapter Summary 200

Chapter 5 Motivation 209
Graham Davey

Theories of Motivation 210

The Biological Bases of Primary Motivations: Hunger and Drinking 219

The Biological Bases of Primary Motivations: Sex and Aggression 229

Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation 240

Affiliation and Achievement Motivation 243

Applications of Theories of Motivation 247

Chapter Summary 250

Chapter 6 Consciousness: Conscious Versus Unconscious Processes 262
Zoltan Dienes and Anil Seth

Introduction 263

Theories of Consciousness: Higher-Order Versus Integration

Conscious Versus Unconscious Memory 270

Conscious Versus Unconscious Perception 279

Conscious Versus Unconscious Learning 292

Conscious Versus Unconscious Intentions: Volition and Hypnotic

Conscious Versus Unconscious Attitudes and Emotions 307

Functions of Consciousness and Future Directions 310

Chapter Summary 312

Chapter 7 Sensation and Perception 324
George Mather

Introduction 325

The Neuroscience of Sensation and Perception 333

Sensory Qualia and Modality 340

Audition 347

Vision: Physiology 354

Visual stimulus 354

Vision: Perceiving Object Properties 360

Multimodal Perception 366

Future Directions 372

Chapter Summary 375

Chapter 8 Learning 382
Mark Haselgrove

Introduction: What Is Learning and Why Does It Happen? 383

Types of Learning 385

Human Causal Learning 404

The Theoretical Basis of Learning 407

The Adaptive Brain: Learning Through Connections 411

Practical and Clinical Applications of Learning 413

Conclusions and Future Directions 421

Chapter Summary 422

Chapter 9 Memory 429
Chris Moulin and Lucie Corbin

What Is Memory? 430

Memory for Beginners: The Cognitive Psychology of Remembering 436

Thinking About Memory: Models and Frameworks 443

Three Dichotomies in Human Memory 449

Future Directions 468

Chapter Summary 472

Chapter 10 Emotion 479
Brian Parkinson

Introduction 480

Emotion Differentiation 481

Facial Expression 496

Appraisal 505

What’s Different About Different Emotions? 515

Conclusions and Future Directions 519

Chapter Summary 521

Chapter 11 Cognitive Development 529
Andy Bremner

Introduction 530

Theories of Development: How Nature and Nurture Interact 532

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology 538

Development of the Brain and Nervous System 541

Multisensory Perceptual Development 547

Sensorimotor Development 556

Cognitive Development 562

Chapter Summary 577

Chapter 12 Language and Thought 589
Alan Garnham

Introduction 590

Language 591

Thinking 609

Language and Thought 639

Chapter Summary 641

Chapter 13 Intelligence 650
Sophie von Stumm

Introduction and Defining Intelligence 651

History of Intelligence 654

Factors of Intelligence 663

Intelligence Development 671

Causes of Individual Differences in Intelligence 676

Alternative Models of Intelligence 684

Future Directions 687

Chapter Summary 689

Chapter 14 Personality 693
Tom Farsides

Introduction to Personality 694

Psychodynamic Personality Theory 697

Trait Personality Theory 708

Humanistic Personality Theory 719

Social Cognitive Personality Theories 730

Behaviourism 731

Observational learning 732

Culture and instruction 733

Self-efficacy beliefs 733

Goals and self-regulation 734

Conclusions and Future Directions 737

Chapter Summary 740

Chapter 15 Mental Health and Psychopathology 750
Frances Meeten and Graham Davey

Introduction to Psychopathology 751

A Brief History of Psychopathology 753

Defining Psychopathology 756

Explanatory Approaches to Psychopathology 760

Classifying Mental Health Problems 766

Mental Health and Stigma 768

Psychological Disorders 771

Conclusions and Future Directions 789

Chapter Summary 791

Chapter 16 The Treatment of Mental Health Problems 803
Kate Cavanagh and Graham Davey

Introduction 804

Psychological Treatments for Mental Health Problems 809

Ways of Delivering Psychological Therapy 822

Social and Environmental Approaches to Treatment 825

Biological Approaches to Treatment 828

Evaluating Treatments for Mental Health Problems 832

Conclusions and Future Directions 842

Chapter Summary 843

Chapter 17 Social Development 855
Lance Slade, Mark Wright, and Robin Banerjee

Introduction 856

Early Emotional Development and Temperament 857

Caregiver–Child Interactions and the Development of Attachment 863

Social Understanding and Self-Regulation 873

Socio-Moral Development 883

Who Am I? The Development of Self and Identity 890

Developing in a Social Context: Family, Peers, and Media 896

Future Directions 907

Chapter Summary 908

Chapter 18 Social Cognition and Attitudes 935
Russell Hutter, Chantelle Wood, Lucy Davies, and Mark Conner

Social Thinking 936

Self and Identity 939

Person Perception 1: Social Inference and Attribution 944

Person Perception 2: Social Cognition and Social Knowledge 948

Stereotyping 952

Attitudes and Attitude Change 958

Automatic Processes in Social Cognition 969

Future Directions 972

Chapter Summary 974

Chapter 19 Interpersonal, Group, and Intergroup Processes 986
Rhiannon N. Turner

Introduction 987

Interpersonal Processes 987

Group Processes 998

Intergroup Processes 1007

Future Directions 1017

Chapter Summary 1018

Index 1029

  • Delivers up-to-date information on chapter topics, written by recognized experts in each relevant area of research
  • Offers broad and detailed coverage of topics suitable for both introductory coursework and advanced undergraduate curricula
  • Provides access to digital textbook version and supplemental online resources, including journal articles, lecture recordings, webinars, and video material
  • Supplies a strong pedagogical framework, including active learning activities, full glossaries, self-test questions, in-depth discussion topics, and extensive bibliographies
  • Employs a logical organizational structure to facilitate progressive learning of the core areas of psychology