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Pumps and Compressors

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$108.99

Pumps and Compressors

Marc Borremans

ISBN: 978-1-119-53408-2 June 2019 512 Pages

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Description

A practical guide to the majority of pumps and compressors used in engineering applications 

Pumps and compressors are ubiquitous in industry, used in manufacturing, processing and chemical plant, HVAC installations, aerospace propulsion systems, medical applications, and everywhere else where there is a need to pump liquids, or circulate or compress gasses. This well-illustrated handbook covers the basic function, performance, and applications for the most widely used pump and compressor types available on the market today. It explains how each device operates and includes the governing mathematics needed to calculate device performance such as flow rates and compression. Additionally, real-world issues such as cavitation, and priming are covered.

Pumps & Compressors is divided into two sections, each of which offers a notation of variables and an introduction. The Pumps section covers piston pumps, radial turbopumps, axial turbopumps, rotating pumps, hydraulic pumps, and pumps with driving flow. The Compressors section covers piston compressors, rotating compressors, turbo compressors, ejectors, vacuum pumps, and compressors for cooling purposes.

  • A virtual encyclopedia of all pumps and compressors that describes the mechanics of all devices and the theory, mathematics, and formulas governing their function
  • Allows the reader to develop the skills needed to confidently select the appropriate pump or compressor type and specification for their applications

Pumps & Compressors is an excellent text for courses on pumps and compressors, as well as a valuable reference for professional engineers and laymen seeking knowledge on the topic.

Preface xv

Acknowledgment xvii

Used Symbols xix

About the Companion Website xxv

Part I Pumps 1

1 General Concepts 3

1.1 Hydrostatics 3

1.2 Flow 4

1.3 Law of Bernoulli 5

1.4 Static and Dynamic Pressure 5

1.5 Viscosity 6

1.6 Extension of Bernoulli’s Law 11

1.7 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 12

1.8 Laminar Flow 13

1.8.1 Hydraulic Resistance 13

1.8.2 Hydraulic Diameter 14

1.9 Turbulent Flow 17

1.10 Moody’s Diagram 20

1.11 Feed Pressure 24

1.11.1 Geodetic Feed Pressure 24

1.11.2 Static Feed Pressure 24

1.11.3 Manometric Feed Pressure 26

1.11.4 Theoretic Feed Pressure 27

1.12 Law of Bernoulli in Moving Reference Frames 27

1.13 Water Hammer (Hydraulic Shock) 28

1.14 Flow Mechanics 30

1.14.1 Hydrofoils 30

1.14.2 Applications 33

2 Positive Displacement Pumps 35

2.1 Reciprocating Pumps 35

2.1.1 Operation 35

2.1.2 Flow 35

2.1.3 Valves 37

2.1.4 Piston Sealing 37

2.1.5 Plunger Pumps 37

2.1.6 Hand Pump 40

2.1.7 Double Acting Pump 41

2.1.8 Membrane Pumps 42

2.1.9 Triplex Pumps 45

2.1.10 Hydrophore 45

2.2 Maximum Suction Head 48

2.2.1 Theoretical 48

2.2.2 Vapor Pressure 49

2.2.3 Velocity 50

2.2.4 Barometer 51

2.2.5 Friction 51

2.2.6 Acceleration 52

2.2.6.1 Kinematics 52

2.2.6.2 Dynamics 53

2.2.7 Air Chambers 56

2.2.7.1 Suction Side 56

2.2.7.2 Press Side 57

2.3 Characteristic Values 59

2.3.1 Manometric Feed Pressure 59

2.3.2 Theoretical Pressure 59

2.3.3 Power and Efficiency 60

2.3.4 Example 62

2.3.5 Characteristic Curve of the Pump 64

2.3.5.1 Characteristic of the Pipe Line 64

2.3.5.2 Characteristic of the Pump 64

2.3.5.3 Regulation 65

2.3.6 Conclusion 67

2.4 Hydraulic Pumps 69

2.4.1 Introduction 69

2.4.2 Sliding Vane Pump 69

2.4.3 Gear Pumps 71

2.4.3.1 External Toothing 71

2.4.3.2 Internal Toothing 73

2.4.4 Screw Pumps 76

2.4.5 Radial Plunger Pumps 78

2.4.6 Axial Plunger Pumps 81

2.5 Other Displacement Pumps 85

2.5.1 Lobe Pump 85

2.5.2 Peristaltic Pump 88

2.5.2.1 Properties 89

2.5.2.2 Applications 91

2.5.3 Mono Pump 91

2.5.4 Flex Impeller Pump 95

2.5.5 Side Channel Pump 97

3 Dynamic Pumps 103

3.1 Radial Turbopumps (Centrifugal Pumps) 103

3.1.1 General 103

3.1.2 Impeller Forms 103

3.1.2.1 Closed Impeller 103

3.1.2.2 Half-Open Impeller 104

3.1.2.3 Open Impeller 108

3.1.3 Velocity Triangles 108

3.1.4 Flow 109

3.1.4.1 Definition 109

3.1.4.2 Flow Determining Component of the Velocity 110

3.1.4.3 The Relative Flow 110

3.1.5 Static Pressure in a Closed Pump 112

3.1.6 Theoretical Feed Pressure 114

3.1.6.1 Law of Bernoulli in Rotating Frame 114

3.1.6.2 Discussion 114

3.1.6.3 Theoretical Feed Pressure 115

3.1.7 Diffusor 119

3.1.8 Influence of Vane Angle 121

3.1.8.1 Graphically 121

3.1.8.2 Analytically 122

3.1.9 Pump Curve 122

3.1.9.1 System Curve 122

3.1.9.2 Build Up Pump Curve 123

3.1.9.3 Operating Point 124

3.1.10 Pump Efficiency 124

3.1.11 Influence RPM 125

3.1.12 First Set of Affinity Laws 125

3.1.13 Second Set of Affinity Laws 127

3.1.14 Surge 127

3.1.15 Application Field 128

3.1.16 Flow Regulation 130

3.1.16.1 Throttle Regulation 130

3.1.16.2 Bypass Regulation 133

3.1.16.3 Speed Regulation 134

3.1.16.4 Comparison 134

3.1.17 Start Up of the Pump 135

3.1.18 High Pressure Pumps 139

3.1.19 Roto-jet Pump 139

3.1.20 Vortex Pumps 142

3.2 Axial Turbopumps 144

3.2.1 Operation 144

3.2.2 Volumetric Flow 144

3.2.2.1 Axial Velocity 𝜈 144

3.2.2.2 Perpendicular Surface A 148

3.2.3 Theoretical Feed Pressure 149

3.2.4 Diffusors 152

3.2.5 Vane Profile 152

3.2.6 Half-Axial Turbopumps 155

3.2.6.1 Motivation 155

3.2.6.2 Francis Vane Pump 155

3.2.6.3 Mixed Flow Pump 156

3.2.6.4 Characteristics of Turbopumps 158

3.2.7 Archimedes Screw 159

3.3 Turbopumps Advanced 161

3.3.1 1st Number of Rateau 161

3.3.2 2nd Number of Rateau 163

3.3.3 Homologous Series 164

3.3.4 Optimal Homologous Series 167

3.3.5 Rateau Numbers with Axial Pumps 168

3.3.6 The Specific Speed 168

3.3.7 Cavitation 172

3.3.8 NPSH 173

3.3.9 NPSH Characteristics 175

3.3.10 Counteracting Cavitation 175

3.3.11 Inducers 176

3.3.12 Double Sided Entry 180

3.3.13 Characteristics of Pumps 180

3.3.14 Suction Specific Speed 181

3.3.15 Series Connection 183

3.3.16 Parallel Connection 184

3.3.16.1 Simple Case 184

3.3.16.2 Case with Increasing Pump Curve 184

3.3.17 Influence Viscosity 187

3.3.18 Special Turbopumps 190

3.3.18.1 Submersible Pumps 190

3.3.18.2 Electropumps 192

3.3.19 Contaminated Liquids 193

3.3.20 Cutter Pumps 194

3.3.21 Mounting 195

4 Flow-Driven Pumps 205

4.1 General 205

4.2 Liquid Jet Liquid Pump 206

4.3 Liquid Jet Solid Pump 208

4.4 Liquid Jet Mixers 209

4.5 Steam Jet Liquid Pump 209

4.6 The Feedback Pump 209

4.7 Air Pressure Pump 211

5 Sealing 213

5.1 Labyrinth Sealing 213

5.2 Lip Seals 217

5.3 V-Ring Seals 220

5.4 Gland Packing 222

5.5 Lantern Rings 226

5.6 Mechanical Seals 228

5.6.1 Fundamentals 228

5.6.2 Unbalanced Seals 231

5.6.3 Balanced Seals 233

5.6.4 The Configurations 235

5.6.4.1 Single Internal Seal 235

5.6.4.2 Single External Seal 236

5.6.4.3 Back-to-back Double Seal 236

5.6.4.4 Tandem Double Seal (Face-to-back Seal) 237

5.6.4.5 Dual Seal 239

5.6.4.6 Face-to-face Seal 239

5.6.5 Calculation of Liquid Flow 240

5.7 Hydrodynamic Seal 241

5.7.1 Hydrodynamic Seal with Back Vanes 241

5.7.2 Journal Bearing 242

5.7.3 Hydrodynamic Effect Converging Gap 243

5.7.4 Journal Bearing Lift Force 247

5.7.5 Hydrodynamic Mechanical Seals 248

5.8 Floating Ring Seals 250

5.9 Hermetic Pumps 252

5.9.1 Magnetic Coupling 252

5.9.2 Canned Motor Pump 255

Part II Compressors 257

6 General 259

6.1 Terminology 259

6.2 Normal Volume 259

6.3 Ideal Gasses 260

6.4 Work and Power 261

6.4.1 Compression Work 261

6.4.2 Technical Work 262

6.4.3 Technical Power 264

6.5 Nozzles 264

6.6 Flow 266

6.7 Choice and Selection 269

6.8 Psychrometrics 270

6.8.1 Partial Pressure 270

6.8.2 Equivalent Molar Mass 272

6.8.3 Moist Air 272

6.8.4 Water Content 273

6.8.5 Saturated and Unsaturated Air (with Water) 273

6.8.6 Relation Between x and pW 274

7 Piston Compressors 275

7.1 Indicator Diagram 275

7.2 Parts 276

7.2.1 Cylinders 276

7.2.2 Sealing 276

7.2.3 Valves 277

7.3 Volumetric Efficiency 280

7.4 Membrane Compressor 286

7.5 Work and Power 286

7.5.1 Technical Work 286

7.5.2 Isothermal Compression 289

7.5.3 Polytropic Compression 290

7.5.4 Conclusions 291

7.5.5 Efficiency of a Piston Compressor 292

7.6 Two-stage Compressor 294

7.6.1 Motivation 294

7.6.2 Two Stages 295

7.6.2.1 General 295

7.6.2.2 Indicator Diagram 297

7.6.2.3 Intermediate Pressure 297

7.6.2.4 Work Per Stage 299

7.6.2.5 Compression Temperatures 299

7.6.2.6 Volumetric Efficiency 300

7.6.2.7 Cylinder Dimensions 300

7.6.2.8 Mounting 301

7.7 Three or More Stages 301

7.8 Problems with Water Condensation 301

7.9 Flow Regulation 305

7.9.1 Continuous Speed Regulation 305

7.9.2 Throttling Suction Line 305

7.9.3 Keeping Suction Valve Open 306

7.9.4 Dead Volume 306

7.10 Star Triangle Connection 308

7.10.1 Speed Regulation with VFD 311

7.11 Refrigeration Piston Compressor 314

8 Other Displacement Compressors 317

8.1 Roots Compressor 317

8.1.1 Operation 317

8.1.2 Technical Work 317

8.1.3 Properties 319

8.2 Vane Compressor 321

8.2.1 Operation 321

8.2.2 Properties 325

8.3 Screw Compressor 326

8.3.1 Operation 326

8.3.2 Properties 330

8.3.3 Regulation 332

8.3.4 Refrigerant Compressors 334

8.4 Mono-screw Compressor 334

8.4.1 Operation 334

8.4.2 Properties 335

8.4.3 Regulation 338

8.5 Scroll Compressor 341

8.6 Tooth Rotor Compressor 342

8.7 Rolling Piston 342

8.7.1 Operation “Rotary” 342

8.7.2 Swing Compressor 344

8.8 Liquid Ring Compressor 348

8.8.1 Operation 348

8.8.2 Properties 349

8.9 Regulation Displacement Compressors 351

8.9.1 Blow Off 351

8.9.2 Bypass Regulation 352

8.9.3 Throttling the Suction Line 352

8.9.4 Start–Stop Regulation 352

8.9.5 Full Load–No Load Regulation 353

8.9.6 Speed Control with a Frequency Regulator 353

8.10 Refrigerant Compressors 353

9 Turbocompressors 355

9.1 Centrifugal Fans 355

9.1.1 General 355

9.1.2 Static and Dynamic Pressure 357

9.1.3 Types of Vanes 359

9.1.3.1 Forward-curved Vanes 359

9.1.3.2 Aerodynamical Vanes 359

9.1.3.3 Backward-curved Vanes 359

9.1.3.4 Radial Vanes 361

9.1.3.5 Radial Tip Vanes 361

9.1.4 Behavior of the Different Impeller Types 362

9.1.4.1 Backward-curved Vanes 362

9.1.4.2 Forward-curved Vanes 362

9.1.5 Study of the Characteristics 363

9.1.6 Selection of a Fan 365

9.2 Cross-stream Fans 370

9.3 Side Channel Fans 370

9.4 Turbo Fan 372

9.5 Centrifugal Compressor 374

9.6 Refrigerant Turbocompressor 375

9.7 Axial Fans 375

9.7.1 General 375

9.7.2 Reaction Degree Axial Fan 378

9.7.2.1 Definition 378

9.7.3 Contrarotating Axial Fans 386

9.7.4 Variable Pitch Axial Fan 388

9.8 Axial Compressor 390

9.9 Calculation Example 393

9.10 Surge Limit 396

9.11 Choke Limit (Stonewall Point) 397

9.11.1 Introducing Nozzles 397

9.11.1.1 Calculation of the Discharge Speed 397

9.11.1.2 Calculation of the Flow 398

9.11.1.3 The Flow Function 𝜓 399

9.11.1.4 The Critical Pressure 400

9.11.2 Behavior at Changing Counter Pressure 402

9.12 Comparison Axial/Radial Compressor 404

9.13 Regulation of Turbocompressors 406

9.13.1 Rotation Speed 406

9.13.2 Throttling 407

9.13.3 Variable Guide Vanes 407

9.13.3.1 Axial Compressor 407

9.13.3.2 Centrifugal Compressor 409

9.14 Efficiency of Turbocompressors 410

10 Jet Ejectors 415

10.1 Steam Ejector Compressor 415

10.1.1 General 415

10.1.2 Jet Pumps with Mixing Heat Exchangers 417

10.1.3 Jet Pump with Three Surface Heat Exchangers 417

10.2 Gas Jet Ejector 421

10.3 Applications 422

10.3.1 Application 1 422

10.3.2 Application 2 423

11 Vacuum Pumps 425

11.1 Vacuum Areas 425

11.1.1 Kinetic Gas Theory 425

11.1.2 Formation Time 427

11.2 Measuring Devices 428

11.2.1 Introduction 428

11.2.2 Bourdon Measuring Devices 428

11.2.3 Pirani Devices 430

11.2.4 Thermocouple gauges 430

11.2.5 Capacity Membrane Gauge 431

11.2.6 Ionization Gauges 432

11.2.7 Cathode Gauges 432

11.3 Types of Flow 433

11.4 Rough Vacuum (1000–1 [mbar]) 435

11.4.1 Membrane Pumps 435

11.4.2 Steam Jet Vacuum Pumps 436

11.4.3 Liquid Vacuum Ejector Pump 439

11.4.4 Gas Jet Vacuum Pump 439

11.4.5 Centrifugal Vacuum Pumps 441

11.4.6 Liquid Ring Pumps 443

11.5 Medium Vacuum (1–10−3 [mbar]) 444

11.5.1 Vane Pump 444

11.5.2 The Gas Ballast 445

11.5.3 Screw Vacuum Pumps 448

11.5.4 Scroll Vacuum Pump 449

11.5.5 Rolling Piston 449

11.5.6 Claw Pump 451

11.5.7 Roots Vacuum Pumps 451

11.6 High Vacuum (10−3–10−7 [mbar]) 455

11.6.1 Diffusion Pumps 456

11.6.2 Diffusion Ejector Pumps (Booster Pumps) 459

11.6.3 Turbomolecular Pump 459

11.7 Ultrahigh Vacuum (10−7–10−14 [mbar]) 462

11.7.1 Sorption Pumps 462

11.7.2 Adsorption Pumps 462

11.7.3 Sublimation Pump 465

11.7.4 Ion Getter Pump 466

A The Velocity Profile and Mean Velocity for a Laminar Flow 469

B Calculation of 𝝀 for a Laminar Flow 473

Index 475