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QoS Over Heterogeneous Networks

QoS Over Heterogeneous Networks

Mario Marchese

ISBN: 978-0-470-05878-7

Apr 2007

328 pages



The importance of quality of service (QoS) has risen with the recent evolution of telecommunication networks, which are characterised by a great heterogeneity. While many applications require a specific level of assurance from the network; communication networks are characterized by different service providers, transmission means and implementer solutions such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4), IPv6 and MPLS.

Providing comprehensive coverage of QoS issues within heterogeneous network environments, “QoS Over Heterogeneous Networks” looks to find solutions to questions such as does QoS fit within heterogeneous networks and what is the impact on performance if information traverses different network portions that implement specific QoS schemes.


  • A series of algorithms and protocols to help solve potential QoS problems.
  • State of the art case studies and operative examples to illustrate points made.
  • Information on QoS mapping in terms of service-level specification (SLS) and an in-depth discussion of related issues
  • Chapters end-to-end (E2E) QoS, QoS architecture, QoS over heterogeneous networks and QoS internetworking and mapping.

An ideal book for graduate students, researchers and lecturers. System designers, developers and engineers will also find “QoS Over Heterogeneous Networks” a valuable reference.


List of Abbreviations.

Chapter 1. What is QoS?

1.1 QoS Definition.

1.2 Applications.

1.3 QoS Metrics.

1.4 The Concept Of Traffic Flow And Traffic Class.

Chapter 2. QoS-based Networks.

2.1 Heterogeneous QoS-Based Networks.

2.2 The Concept Of Autonomous Systems.

Chapter 3. QoS-Oriented Technologies.

3.1 Layered Architecture And Remote Systems Connections Protocol Stack.

3.2 Atm.

3.3 Mpls.

3.4 QoS-IPv4.

3.4.1 Integrated Services.

3.4.2 Differentiated Services.

3.4.3 Mixed Intserv-Diffserv Approach.

3.4.4 Dscp Assignation.

3.5 QoS-IPv6.

3.6 Class Of Service Full IPv6 Network (Csf6n).

3.7 Full IPv6 Switched Network (F6sn).

Chapter 4. Network Control Issues.

4.1 QoS Management Functions.

4.1.1 Overprovisioning.

4.1.2 Flow Identification.

4.1.3 Resource Reservation And CAC.

4.1.4 Traffic Control (Shaping).

4.1.5 Scheduling.

4.1.6 Queue Management.

4.1.7 Flow Control.

4.1.8 QoS Routing.

4.2 The Risk Of No Control.

4.2.1 Flow Identification.

4.2.2 Cac.

4.2.3 Shaping.

4.2.4 Resource Allocation.

Chapter 5. QoS Over Heterogeneous Networks.

5.1 Scenarios And Problems.

5.2 Vertical QoS Mapping.

5.2.1 Information Transport Technologies.

5.2.2 Formal Relation Among The Layers.

5.3 Horizontal QoS Mapping.

Chapter 6. QoS Architectures.

6.1 End-To-End Quality Of Service: State-Of-The-Art.

6.2 Architectures For QoS Control.

6.3 ""Technology""-Centric QoS Architecture.

6.4 IP-Centric QoS Architecture.

6.4.1 Architectures And Data Encapsulation.

6.4.2 Intserv-IP-Centric QoS Architecture.

6.4.3 Diffserv-IP-Centric QoS Architecture.

6.5 Mpls-Centric QoS Approach.

6.5.1 Mpls-Integrated QoS Approach.

6.5.2 Full-Mpls-Centric QoS Approach.

6.6 IPv6-Centric QoS Approach.

6.7 QoS Overall Architecture.

6.8 QoS Architectures Comparison.

6.8.1 Comparison Of The Features.

6.8.2 Sls Separation Versus Aggregation.

Chapter 7. Signalling Over QoS Architectures.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Rsvp QoS Signalling.

7.2.1 Rsvp Architecture.

7.2.2 Rsvp Objects.

7.2.3 Rsvp Entities And Resource Reservation Applied To QoS Architectures.

7.2.4 Rsvp Functional Specification (Rsvp Packet Format).

7.2.5 Summary Of Rsvp Protocol Mechanism.

7.2.6 Rsvp Extension For Diffserv QoS Signalling.

7.3 RSVP-TE.

7.3.1 Introduction.

7.3.2 New Objects Definition.

7.3.3 Control Actions.

7.3.4 RSVP-TE And Scalability.

7.3.5 Remarks.

7.4 NSIS QoS Signalling.

7.4.1 Requirements And Application Scenarios.

7.5 Q-BGP (Quality Of Service Enhanced– Border Gateway Protocol).

7.5.1 Introduction To BGP.

7.5.2 BGP Message Formats.

7.5.3 Additional Information Carried By Q-BGP.

7.6 Final Remarks Concerning Signalling.

Chapter 8. Vertical QoS Mapping.

8.1 Reference Architecture.

8.2 Control Modules.

8.3 Technology Independent Layers’ Implementation.

8.4 Technology Dependent Layers Implementation.

8.5 TI-SAP Implementation.

8.6 Vertical QoS Mapping Problems.

8.6.1 Change Of Information Unit.

8.6.2 Heterogeneous Traffic Aggregation.

8.6.3 Fading Effect.

8.6.4 Joint Problems.

Chapter 9. Algorithm For Vertical QoS Mapping.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Network Optimization: State-Of-The-Art.

9.3 The SI-SAP QoS Mapping Problem.

9.3.1 System Constraints And Assumptions.

9.3.2 Stochastic Fluid Model And Optimization Problem.

9.3.3 Reference Chaser Bandwidth Controller (RCBC).

9.3.4 Alternative Approach: Equivalent Bandwidth Heuristic.

9.4 Performance Analysis.

9.4.1 Encapsulation.

9.4.2 Traffic Aggregation.

9.4.3 Fading Counteraction.

Chapter 10. QoS Gateways For Satellite And Radio Communication.

10.1 QoS Gateways Role.

10.2 Protocol Optimization Through Layers (POTL).

10.3 Protocol Stack Optimization.

Chapter 11. QoS Gateways For Satellite And Radio Communication.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 System Scenario And Control Architecture.

11.2.1 Network Topology.

11.2.2 Simple Channel Model.

11.3 General Bandwidth Allocation Architecture.

11.3.1 Local Controller.

11.3.2 NCC Allocation

11.4 Pareto Optimality Of The Bandwidth Allocation.

11.5 Resolution Approaches.

11.5.1 Utopia Minimum Distance Method Algorithm.

11.5.2 Fixed Allocation.

11.5.3 Heuristic Allocation.

11.5.4 Value Function.

11.5.5 Nash Bargains Solutions.

11.5.6 QoS-constrained Solutions. QoS Point Minimum Distance (Qpmd).

11.6 Numerical Examples.

11.6.1 Bandwidth and Packed-Loss Probability.

11.6.2 performance Evaluation in Presence of QoS Constraints.

Chapter 12. Transport Layer Over Satellite.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The TCP Protocol.

12.3 The TCP Congestion Control.

12.3.1 Slow Start.

12.3.2 Congestion Avoidance.

12.3.3 Fast Retransmit/Fast Recovery.

12.4 TCP Over Satellite Networks.

12.5 TCP Parameters.

12.5.1 The Real Test-bed.

12.5.2 Test Application.

12.5.3 Buffer Length and Initial Window (IW)

12.6 Complete Knowledge TCP.

12.7 Further Improvement Of The Performance.

13 References.