Part One: Introduction to Qualitative Research: Initial Stages.
1 The Nature and Utility of Qualitative Research.
What is qualitative research?
The main features of qualitative research.
The place of theory in qualitative research.
The usefulness of qualitative research in healthcare.
Choosing an approach for health research.
Problematic issues in qualitative research.
2 The Paradigm Debate: The Place of Qualitative Research.
Theoretical frameworks and ontological position.
The paradigm debate.
Conflicting or complementary perspectives?
3 Initial Steps in the Research Process.
Selecting and formulating the research question.
The literature review.
Writing a research proposal.
Access and entry to the setting.
4 Ethical Considerations.
The basic ethical framework for research.
Ethics in qualitative research.
Researching one’s peers.
The research relationship.
Research in the researcher’s workplace.
The role of research ethics committees.
5 The Issue of Supervision.
The responsibilities of supervisor and student.
Writing and relationships.
Practical aspects of supervision.
Single or joint supervision.
Problems with supervision.
Part Two: Data Collection.
Interviews as sources of data.
The interview process.
Types of interview.
Probing, prompting and summarising.
The social context of the interview.
Unexpected outcomes: qualitative interviewing and therapy.
Length and timing of interviews.
Recording interview data.
The interviewer–participant relationship.
Problematic issues and challenges in interviewing.
Interviewing through electronic media.
Ethical issues in interviewing.
Strengths and weaknesses of interviewing.
7 Participant Observation and Documents as Sources of Data.
The origins of participant observation.
Immersion in culture and setting.
Documentary sources of data.
Images as sources of data.
8 Focus Groups as Qualitative Research.
What is a focus group?
The origin and purpose of focus groups.
Sample size and composition.
Conducting focus group interviews.
Analysing and reporting focus group data.
Advantages and limitations of focus groups.
Critical comments on focus group interviews in healthcare.
9 Sampling and Site Selection.
Purposeful (or purposive) sampling.
How shall we name them?
Part Three: Approaches to Qualitative Research.
The historical perspective.
A focus on culture.
Ethnography in healthcare.
The main features of ethnography.
Doing and writing ethnography.
Pitfalls and problems.
11 Grounded Theory.
History and origin.
The main features of grounded theory.
Data collection, theoretical sampling and analysis.
Pitfalls and problems.
Glaser’s critique and further development.
Constructivist grounded theory.
Which approach for the health researcher?
12 Narrative Inquiry.
The nature of narrative and story.
Types of narrative.
Intentionality and the early stages of phenomenology.
Schools of phenomenology.
The phenomenological research process: doing phenomenology.
Procedures for data collection and analysis.
Phenomenology and health research.
Choice of approach: descriptive or interpretive phenomenology.
14 Action Research.
What is action research?
The origins of action research.
Action research in healthcare.
The main features of action research.
Trustworthiness in AR.
Problems and critique.
15 Additional Approaches.
Case study research.
Critical incident technique.
Performative social science.
16 Mixed Methods: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative
The nature of mixed methods studies.
Doing mixed methods research.
Types of mixed methods research.
The place and purpose of the literature.
Critique of MMR.
Part Four: Data Analysis and Completion.
17 Data Analysis: Procedures, Practices and Computers.
The process of data analysis.
Coding and categorising.
Problems of QDA.
Computer-aided analysis of qualitative data.
Problems and critique.
18 Establishing Quality: Trustworthiness or Validity.
An alternative perspective: trustworthiness.
Strategies to ensure trustworthiness.
Quality and creativity.
19 Writing up Qualitative Research.
The research account.
Use of the first person.
The format of the report.
Critical assessment and evaluation.
Guide to appraisal.
Publishing and presenting the research.
- Brand new chapter on Mixed Methods Research
- Considers a variety of approaches from Ethnography to Action Research
- Allows the reader to dip in and out depending on their choice of approach
- Detailed reference lists provide guidance for further reading
- Links research with real nursing practice through relevant examples throughout