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Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production

Hardcover

$199.95

Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production

Kevin S. Murphy (Editor), Janet Matanguihan (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-62805-8 September 2015 Wiley-Blackwell 256 Pages

Description

Quinoa is an ancient grain that has grown in popularity in recent years. It has been known as a good source of both protein and fiber. As the demand for quinoa increases a comprehensive and up-to-date reference on the biology and production of the crop is essential. Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production brings together authors from around the world to provide a complete assessment of the current state of global quinoa research and production.  Topics covered include quinoa history and culture, genomics and breeding, agronomy, nutrition, marketing, and end-uses.  The book focuses in particular on the emerging role of quinoa in providing increased food security to smallholder farmers and communities throughout the world.

Quinoa will interest quinoa researchers, producers, crop scientists, agronomists, and plant geneticists, as well as advanced students working with this important grain.

List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Quinoa: An Incan Crop to Face Global Changes in Agriculture 1
Juan Antonio González, Sayed S. S.Eisa, Sayed A. E. S. Hussin, and Fernando Eduardo Prado

Introduction 1

A Brief History of Quinoa Cultivation 2

Nutritional Value of Quinoa Seed 2

Botanical and Genetic Characteristics of the Quinoa Plant 5

Quinoa and Environmental Stresses:Drought and Salinity 7

Conclusion 12

References 12

2 History of Quinoa: Its Origin,Domestication,Diversification,and Cultivation with Particular Reference to the Chilean Context 19
Enrique A. Martínez, Francisco F.Fuentes, and Didier Bazile

Quinoa Origins in the Central Andes 19

Ancient Expansion to Southern Latitudes in Chile 20

Reintroduction of Quinoa in Arid Chile after Local Extinction 20

Final Remarks 23

References 23

3 Agroecological and Agronomic Cultural Practices of Quinoa in South America 25
Magali Garcia, Bruno Condori, and Carmen Del Castillo

Introduction 25

Andean Domestication 26

Botanical and Taxonomical Description 27

Genetic Background and Research on Quinoa Genetics 28

Ecology and Phytogeography 30

Cultivation and Agronomic Practices in South America 30

Quinoa Production 31

Soil conditions 31

Climate 32

Drought resistance 32

Temperature and photoperiod 33

Hail 34

Cultivation 34

Sowing 34

Fertilization of quinoa 36

Cultural practices 37

Crop water requirements and irrigation 37

Biotic threats: pests and diseases 38

Seed harvest and postharvest technology 39

References 41

4 Trends in Quinoa Yield over the Southern Bolivian Altiplano:Lessons from Climate and Land-Use Projections 47
Serge Rambal, Jean-Pierre Ratte, Florent Mouillot, and Thierry Winkel

Summary 47

Introduction 48

Materials and Methods 49

The study area 49

Recent past and present climate 49

Source of climate scenarios 50

Simulating the yield index at local or plot scale 50

The soil water balance model 50

Scenarios of land-use/land-cover changes 51

Scaling local yield index up to the region 51

Results 52

Drought history over the area 52

Climate projections and soil drought limitation 52

Time variation of yield at local or plot scale 54

Model results at landscape level 56

Discussion 57

Acknowledgments 60

References 60

5 The Potential of Using Natural Enemies and Chemical Compounds in Quinoa for Biological Control of Insect Pests 63
Mariana Valoy, Carmen Reguilón,and Griselda Podazza

Introduction 63

Insects in Quinoa 64

Insect pests of quinoa 65

Beneficial insects in quinoa 65

Chemical responses of quinoa to insect herbivory 72

Quinoa secondary metabolites 74

Potential of Biological Control in Quinoa 76

Potential for Ecological Management of Quinoa 77

References 80

6 Quinoa Breeding 87
Luz Gomez-Pando

History – Domestication Process 87

Collection of Genetic Resources 88

Goals and Methods of Quinoa Breeding 92

Requirement of the farmers 92

Requirements of the industry and consumers 95

Methods in genetic improvement 96

Quinoa Breeding Methods 98

Selection 98

Participatory plant breeding (PPB) 98

Introduction of foreign germplasm 99

Hybridization 99

Interspecific and intergeneric crosses 102

Backcross method 102

Using heterosis in quinoa 102

Mutagenesis 103

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) 103

Conclusion 103

References 103

7 Quinoa Cytogenetics, Molecular Genetics, and Diversity 109
Janet B. Matanguihan, Peter J.Maughan, Eric N. Jellen, and Bozena Kolano

Introduction 109

Cytogenetics and Genome Structure of Chenopodium Quinoa 109

Crossability of Quinoa and Allied Tetraploid Taxa 111

DNA Sequence Evidence for Quinoa’s Genomic Origins 112

Quinoa GeneticMarkers and Linkage Maps 113

Quinoa Diversity 115

Phenotypic diversity 115

Genetic diversity 117

Summary 118

References 120

8 Ex Situ Conservation of Quinoa:The Bolivian Experience 125
Wilfredo Rojas and Milton Pinto

Introduction 125

Centers of Origin and Diversity of Quinoa 126

Geographical Distribution of Quinoa 127

Genebanks of the Andean Region 128

Bolivian Collection of Quinoa

Germplasm 130

History and management of the quinoa germplasm 130

Current status of quinoa germplasm 132

Steps for Ex Situ Management and

Conservation of Quinoa 132

Collection of quinoa germplasm 133

Technical procedure for quinoa germplasm collection 133

History and evolution of quinoa germplasm collections 134

Distribution of quinoa germplasm collection 136

Preliminary multiplication of quinoa germplasm 136

Storage and conservation of quinoa germplasm 138

Short- and medium-term storage (1 to 20 years) 138

Long-term storage (80 to 100 years) 138

Characterization and evaluation of the quinoa germplasm 140

Stages of germplasm characterization and evaluation 140

Agromorphological variables 141

Agro-food and nutritional value variables 143

Molecular characterization 144

Multiplication and regeneration of quinoa germplasm 144

Monitoring of seed quantity and percentage of seed germination 145

Technical procedure for multiplication and/or regeneration 145

Regeneration schedule 146

Documentation and information on quinoa germplasm 147

Utilization of quinoa germplasm 148

Conclusions 155

References 158

9 Quinoa Breeding in Africa:History, Goals, and Progress 161
Moses F.A. Maliro and Veronica Guwela

Introduction 161

Origin of quinoa 161

Introducing quinoa in Africa 161

Ecological adaptation of quinoa 163

Goals of Quinoa Breeding in Africa 164

Quinoa studies underMalawi conditions 164

Quinoa studies in Kenya 166

Challenges and Considerations for Future Research 169

Plant lodging 169

Acceptability 169

Agronomic practices 170

Rain-fed versus irrigated cropping systems 170

Conclusion 170

References 170

10 Quinoa Cultivation for Temperate North America:Considerations and Areas for Investigation 173
Adam J. Peterson and Kevin M. Murphy

Introduction 173

Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses 173

Heat tolerance 173

Drought tolerance 174

Cold tolerance 175

Salinity tolerance 176

Production Aspects 177

Variety selection 177

Fertilization 178

Planting/spacing 179

Maturity and harvesting 181

Challenges to Quinoa Production 182

Waterlogging and preharvest sprouting 182

Disease 183

Insect pests 184

Weed control 185

Saponins 186

Alternative Uses of Quinoa 186

Forage 186

Feed 187

Conclusion 187

Acknowledgments 188

References 188

11 Nutritional Properties of Quinoa 193
Geyang Wu

Introduction 193

Protein 193

Carbohydrates 196

Starch 196

Sugar 198

Dietary fiber 198

Lipids 199

Vitamins 200

Minerals 201

Anti-Nutritional Factors of Quinoa 202

Bioactive Compounds 204

Phenolic compounds 204

Phenolic acid 204

Flavonoids 204

Carotenoids 205

Summary 205

References 205

12 Quinoa’s Calling 211
Sergio Núñez de Arco

Introduction 211

A Snapshot of the Economics of a Smallholder Farmer in Bolivia and the International Market 212

The Quinoa Market: Supply and Demand 213

Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador increase quinoa acreage 213

Evolution of quinoa,(Figs. 12.7–12.10 and Fig. 12.3) acreage in Bolivia 213

The US quinoa market and evolution of prices 215

Quinoa in the eye of a market storm 215

The quinoa grower rises out of poverty 217

Current Production Practices, Increased

Acreage, and Thoughts on Sustainability 221

Living Well, Reversed Migration, and Cultural Identity 224

Opportunities for the Bolivian Farmer 225

Index 227