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Radiative Transfer in Coupled Environmental Systems: An Introduction to Forward and Inverse Modeling

Radiative Transfer in Coupled Environmental Systems: An Introduction to Forward and Inverse Modeling

Knut Stamnes, Jakob J. Stamnes

ISBN: 978-3-527-41163-4

Oct 2015

450 pages

Select type: Hardcover

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Description

This book is dedicated to the formulation and solution of forward and inverse problems related to coupled media, and provides examples of how to solve concrete problems in environmental remote sensing of coupled atmosphere-surface systems.

The authors discuss radiative transfer in coupled media such as the atmosphere-ocean system with Lambertian as well non-Lambertian reflecting surfaces at the lower boundary. The spectral range from the ultraviolet to the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum is considered, as are multi-spectral as well as hyperspectral remote sensing, while solutions of the forward problem for unpolarized and polarized radiation are discussed in detail.
INTRODUCTION
INHERENT OPTICAL PROPERTIES
Atmosphere
Water
Snow and Ice
Vegetation
BASIC RADIATIVE TRANSFER THEORY
Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) for Polarized and Unpolarized Radiation in Coupled Systems
Isolation of Azimuth Dependence
Reflectance and Transmittance at Interface between the two Coupled Media
Specular VS Lambertian and non-Lambertian Reflection at the Lower Boundary
Methods of Solution of the RTE
Discrete Ordinate Method
Successive Order of Scattering Method
Monte Carlo Method
Linearized Radiative Transfer ? Jacobians
Neural Network Forward Models
Principal Component Analysis
Surface Roughness Treatment
Kirchhoff Approximation
Gaussian Surface Slope Statistics
FORWARD RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING
Coupled atmosphere-Water Systems
Coupled Atmosphere-Snow/Ice Systems
Coupled Atmosphere-Vegetation Canopies
THE INVERSE PROBLEM
Generic Formulation of the Problem
Linear Inverse Problems
Least Squares Solutions
Ill-Posedness
SVD Solutions and Resolution Kernels
Regularizations required to Enhance Stability of the Solution
Trade-off between Stability and Resolution
Nonlinear Inverse Problems
Gauss-Newton Solution of the Nonlinear Inverse Problem
Twomey-Tihkonov and Levenberg-Marquardt Regularizations
Bayes Theorem and Optimal Estimation
APPLICATIONS
Coupled Atmosphere-Water Systems
Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Aquatic Parameters
Coupled Atmosphere-Snow-Ice Systems
Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Snow/Ice Parameters
Coupled Atmosphere-Vegetation Canopy Systems
Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Vegetation Canopy Parameters
REMAINING CHALLENGES
CONCLUSIONS