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Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways EAU 2012, 9th Edition

Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways EAU 2012, 9th Edition

HTG

ISBN: 978-3-433-60518-9

Jun 2015

676 pages

Description

The "EAU 2012" takes into account the new generation of standards, which is shortly to be introduced into the building control system; it consists of Eurocode 7, the associated national application documents and additional national regulations (DIN 1054:2010). In certain cases, partial safety factors are determined differently based on experience in practice. This means that the safety standard of sea and port buildings remains in place; the recommendations nevertheless satisfy the requirements for international recognition and application regarding the planning, design, specification, tender procedure, construction and monitoring, as well as the handover of - and cost accounting for - port and waterway systems under uniform criteria.
List of Recommendations in the 9th Edition XXI

Preface to 11th, revised edition (9th English edition) of the Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures – Harbours and Waterways XXVII

0 Structural calculations 1

0.1 General 1

0.2 Safety concept  2

0.2.1 General 2

0.2.2 Combination factors 7

0.2.3 Analysis of ultimate limit state 8

0.2.4 Analysis of serviceability limit state  9

0.2.5 Geotechnical categories 9

0.2.6 Probabilistic analysis 9

0.3 Calculations for waterfront structures 10

1 Subsoil 11

1.1 Mean characteristic values of soil parameters (R 9) 11

1.1.1 General  11

1.2 Layout and depths of boreholes and penetrometer tests (R 1)  11

1.2.1 General  11

1.2.2 Principal boreholes 17

1.2.3 Intermediate boreholes 17

1.2.4 Penetrometer tests  17

1.3 Geotechnical report (R 150) 18

1.4 Determining the shear strength cu of saturated, undrained cohesive soils (R 88) 19

1.4.1 Cohesion cu of undrained soil 19

1.4.2 Determining the cohesion cu of an undrained soil 20

1.4.3 Determining cu in laboratory tests  21

1.4.4 Field tests  22

1.4.5 Correlations 22

1.5 Assessing the subsoil for the installation of piles and sheet piles and for selecting the installation method (R 154) 22

1.5.1 General  22

1.5.2 Assessment of soil types with respect to installation methods 23

2 Active and passive earth pressure 27

2.1 General  27

2.2 Considering the cohesion in cohesive soils (R 2) 27

2.3 Considering the apparent cohesion (capillary cohesion) in sand (R 3)  27

2.4 Determining active earth pressure according to the Culmann method (R 171)  28

2.4.1 Solution for uniform soil without cohesion 28

2.4.2 Solution for uniform soil with cohesion 29

2.4.3 Expanded solutions 29

2.5 Active earth pressure in stratified soil (R 219) 30

2.6 Determining active earth pressure for a steep, paved embankment in a partially sloping waterfront structure (R 198) 32

2.7 Determining the active earth pressure shielding on a wall below a relieving platform with average ground surcharges (R 172)  34

2.8 Earth pressure distribution under limited loads (R 220) 37

2.9 Determining active earth pressure in saturated, non- or partially consolidated, soft cohesive soils (R 130) 38

2.10 Effect of artesian water pressure under harbour bottom or river bed on active and passive earth pressures (R 52) 40

2.11 Considering active earth pressure and excess water pressure, and construction guidance for waterfront structures with soil replacement and contaminated or disturbed base of excavation (R 110) 42

2.11.1 General  42

2.11.2 Approach for determining active earth pressure  42

2.11.3 Approaches for determining excess water pressure  44

2.11.4 Guidance for the design of waterfront structures  44

2.12 Effect of groundwater flow on excess water pressure and active and passive earth pressures (R 114)  46

2.12.1 General  46

2.12.2 Determining the excess water pressure 48

2.12.3 Determining the effects on active and passive earth pressures when the flow is mainly vertical  50

2.13 Determining the amount of displacement required for mobilising passive earth pressure in non-cohesive soils (R 174) 53

2.14 Measures for increasing the passive earth pressure in front of waterfront structures (R 164)  54

2.14.1 General  54

2.14.2 Soil replacement 55

2.14.3 Soil compaction 55

2.14.4 Soil surcharge 56

2.14.5 Soil stabilisation 56

2.15 Passive earth pressure in front of abrupt changes in ground level in soft cohesive soils with rapid load application on land side (R 190) 57

2.16 Waterfront structures in seismic regions (R 124) 57

2.16.1 General  57

2.16.2 Effects of earthquakes on the subsoil  59

2.16.3 Determining the effects of earthquakes on active and passive earth pressures 59

2.16.4 Excess water pressure 62

2.16.5 Transient loads  62

2.16.6 Design situation and partial safety factors 62

2.16.7 Guidance for considering seismic influences on waterfront structures 62

3 Hydraulic heave failure, ground failure  64

3.1 Safety against hydraulic heave failure (R 115) 64

3.2 Piping (ground failure due to internal erosion) (R 116) 70

4 Water levels, water pressure, drainage 73

4.1 Mean groundwater level (R 58)  73

4.2 Excess water pressure in direction of water side (R 19) 73

4.3 Excess water pressure on sheet piling in front of embankments below elevated platforms in tidal areas (R 65)  75

4.3.1 General  75

4.3.2 Approximation for excess water pressure 76

4.4 Design of weepholes for sheet piling structures (R 51) 76

4.5 Design of drainage systems for waterfront structures in tidal areas (R 32) 78

4.5.1 General  78

4.5.2 Design, installation and maintenance of drainage systems 79

4.5.3 Drainage systems for large waterfront structures  79

4.6 Relieving artesian pressure beneath harbour bottoms (R 53) 80

4.6.1 General  80

4.6.2 Design of relief wells 80

4.6.3 Construction of relief wells 81

4.6.4 Checking the relief installation 81

4.7 Taking account of groundwater flow (R 113)  81

4.7.1 General  81

4.7.2 Principles of groundwater flow 81

4.7.3 Definition of the boundary conditions for a flow net 83

4.7.4 Graphic method for determining a flow net 83

4.7.5 Use of groundwater models to determine flow nets 84

4.7.6 Calculation of individual hydraulic variables  85

4.7.7 Evaluation of examples  85

4.8 Temporary stabilisation of waterfront structures by groundwater lowering (R 166) 90

4.8.1 General  90

4.8.2 Case with soft, cohesive soil near the ground surface  90

4.8.3 Case as for section 4.8.2 but with high-level aquifer 92

4.8.4 Consideration of intermediate states 92

5 Ship dimensions and loads on waterfront structures  93

5.1 Ship dimensions (R 39)  93

5.1.1 Sea-going ships  93

5.1.2 River- and sea-going vessels  99

5.1.3 Inland waterway vessels 100

5.1.4 Displacement 103

5.2 Berthing force of ships at quays (R 38) 103

5.3 Berthing velocities of ships transverse to berth (R 40)  103

5.4 Design situations (R 18)105

5.4.1 Design situation DS-P  105

5.4.2 Design situation DS-T  105

5.4.3 Design situation DS-A  105

5.4.4 Extreme case 106

5.5 Vertical imposed loads (R 5) 106

5.5.1 General 106

5.5.2 Basic situation 1  108

5.5.3 Basic situation 2  108

5.5.4 Basic situation 3  109

5.5.5 Loading assumptions for quay surfaces 109

5.6 Determining the “design sea state” for maritime and port structures (R 136) 110

5.6.1 General 110

5.6.2 Description of the sea state 110

5.6.3 Determining the sea state parameters 111

5.6.4 Design concepts and specification of design parameters 116

5.6.5 Conversion of the sea state 117

5.7 Wave pressure on vertical quay walls in coastal areas (R 135)  120

5.7.1 General 120

5.7.2 Loads due to non-breaking waves 120

5.7.3 Loads due to waves breaking on structure 121

5.7.4 Loads due to broken waves  124

5.7.5 Additional loads caused by waves 124

5.8 Loads arising from surging and receding waves due to the inflow or outflow of water (R 185)  125

5.8.1 General 125

5.8.2 Determining wave values  125

5.8.3 Load assumptions 126

5.9 Effects of waves due to ship movements (R 186) 126

5.9.1 General 126

5.9.2 Wave heights128

5.10 Wave pressure on piled structures (R 159) 129

5.10.1 General 129

5.10.2 Method of calculation according to Morison et al 133

5.10.3 Determining the wave loads on a single vertical pile 134

5.10.4 Coefficients CD and CM 135

5.10.5 Forces from breaking waves 136

5.10.6 Wave load on a group of piles 136

5.10.7 Raking piles 137

5.10.8 Safety factors 138

5.10.9 Vertical wave load (“wave slamming”) 138

5.11 Wind loads on moored ships and their influence on the dimensioning of mooring and fender equipment (R 153) 145

5.11.1 General 145

5.11.2 Critical wind speed  145

5.11.3 Wind loads on moored vessels 145

5.11.4 Loads on mooring and fender equipment  146

5.12 Layout of and loads on bollards for sea-going vessels (R 12) 147

5.12.1 Layout 147

5.12.2 Loads  148

5.12.3 Direction of bollard pull force  148

5.13 Layout, design and loading of bollards for inland facilities (R 102) 149

5.13.1 Layout and design 149

5.13.2 Loads  150

5.13.3 Direction of line pull forces  151

5.13.4 Calculations 151

5.14 Quay loads from cranes and other transhipment equipment (R 84) 151

5.14.1 Typical general cargo port cranes  151

5.14.2 Container cranes  152

5.14.3 Load specifications for port cranes 153

5.14.4 Notes155

5.15 Impact and pressure of ice on waterfront structures, fenders and dolphins in coastal areas (R 177)  155

5.15.1 General 155

5.15.2 Determining the compressive strength of the ice 157

5.15.3 Ice loads on waterfront structures and other structures of greater extent 158

5.15.4 Ice loads on vertical piles 161

5.15.5 Horizontal ice load on group of piles 162

5.15.6 Ice surcharges 162

5.15.7 Vertical loads with rising or falling water levels 163

5.16 Impact and pressure of ice on waterfront structures, piers and dolphins at inland facilities (R 205)  164

5.16.1 General 164

5.16.2 Ice thickness 164

5.16.3 Compressive strength of the ice 165

5.16.4 Ice loads on waterfront structures and other structures of greater extent 165

5.16.5 Ice loads on narrow structures (piles, dolphins, bridge and weir piers, ice deflectors)  166

5.16.6 Ice loads on groups of structures  166

5.16.7 Vertical loads with rising or falling water levels 167

5.17 Loads on waterfront structures and dolphins caused by fender reaction forces (R 213)  167

6 Configuration of cross-sections and equipment for waterfront structures  168

6.1 Standard cross-section dimensions for waterfront structures in seaports (R 6)  168

6.1.1 Standard cross-sections 168

6.1.2 Walkways (towpaths) 168

6.1.3 Railings, rubbing strips and edge protection  169

6.1.4 Edge bollards 169

6.1.5 Arrangement of tops of quay walls at container terminals  169

6.2 Top edges of waterfront structures in seaports (R 122)  170

6.2.1 General 170

6.2.2 Level of port operations area with regard to water levels 170

6.2.3 Effects of (changing) groundwater levels on the terrain and the level of the port operations area 171

6.2.4 Level of port operations area depending on cargo handling 171

6.3 Standard cross-sections for waterfront structures in inland ports (R 74)  172

6.3.1 Port operations level 172

6.3.2 Waterfront 172

6.3.3 Clearance profile 173

6.3.4 Position of outboard crane rail  173

6.3.5 Mooring equipment  175

6.4 Sheet piling waterfronts on inland waterways (R 106)  175

6.4.1 General 175

6.4.2 Stability analysis  177

6.4.3 Loading assumptions 177

6.4.4 Embedment depth 178

6.5 Upgrading partially sloped waterfronts in inland ports with large water level fluctuations (R 119) 178

6.5.1 Reasons for partially sloped upgrades 178

6.5.2 Design principles  178

6.6 Design of waterfront areas in inland ports according to operational aspects (R 158) 180

6.6.1 Requirements 180

6.6.2 Design principles  181

6.6.3 Waterfront cross-sections  181

6.7 Nominal depth and design depth of harbour bottom (R 36) 182

6.7.1 Nominal depth in seaports 182

6.7.2 Nominal depth of harbour bottom for inland ports 182

6.7.3 Design depth in front of quay wall 183

6.8 Strengthening waterfront structures for deepening harbour bottoms in seaports (R 200)  184

6.8.1 General 184

6.8.2 Design of strengthening measures 185

6.9 Embankments below waterfront wall superstructures behind closed sheet pile walls (R 68)189

6.9.1 Embankment loads  189

6.9.2 Risk of silting-up behind sheet pile wall 190

6.10 Redesign of waterfront structures in inland ports (R 201)  190

6.10.1 General 190

6.10.2 Redesign options  190

6.10.3 Construction examples 191

6.11 Provision of quick-release hooks at berths for large vessels (R 70) 193

6.12 Layout, design and loads of access ladders (R 14) 194

6.12.1 Layout 194

6.12.2 Design 194

6.13 Layout and design of stairs in seaports (R 24)  197

6.13.1 Layout of stairs 197

6.13.2 Practical stair dimensions 198

6.13.3 Landings  198

6.13.4 Railings 198

6.13.5 Mooring equipment  198

6.13.6 Stairs in sheet pile structures 198

6.14 Equipment for waterfront structures in seaports with supply and disposal systems (R 173)  199

6.14.1 General 199

6.14.2 Water supply systems  199

6.14.3 Electricity supply systems 200

6.14.4 Other systems  201

6.14.5 Disposal systems  202

6.15 Fenders for large vessels (R 60) 202

6.15.1 General 202

6.15.2 The fendering principle 203

6.15.3 Design principles for fenders 204

6.15.4 Required energy absorption capacity 205

6.15.5 Types of fender system 211

6.15.6 Construction guidance  216

6.15.7 Chains  217

6.15.8 Guiding devices and edge protection 217

6.16 Fenders in inland ports (R 47)  219

6.17 Foundations to craneways on waterfront structures (R 120)  220

6.17.1 General 220

6.17.2 Design of foundations, tolerances 221

6.18 Fixing crane rails to concrete (R 85) 223

6.18.1 Supporting the crane rail on a continuous steel plate on a continuous concrete base 223

6.18.2 Bridge-type arrangement with rail supported centrally on bearing plates 223

6.18.3 Bridge-type arrangement with rail supported on chairs  227

6.18.4 Traversable craneways 227

6.18.5 Note on rail wear  230

6.18.6 Local bearing pressure  231

6.19 Connection of expansion joint seal in reinforced concrete bottom to loadbearing steel sheet pile wall (R 191)  231

6.20 Connecting steel sheet piling to a concrete structure (R 196) 231

6.21 Floating berths in seaports (R 206) 236

6.21.1 General 236

6.21.2 Design principles  236

6.21.3 Loading assumptions and design  237

7 Earthworks and dredging  238

7.1 Dredging in front of quay walls in seaports (R 80) 238

7.2 Dredging and hydraulic fill tolerances (R 139) 240

7.2.1 General 240

7.2.2 Dredging tolerances  240

7.3 Hydraulic filling of port areas for planned waterfront structures (R 81)  242

7.3.1 General 242

7.3.2 Hydraulic filling of port above the water table  245

7.3.3 Hydraulic filling of port areas below the water table  246

7.4 Backfilling of waterfront structures (R 73) 249

7.4.1 General 249

7.4.2 Backfilling in the dry 249

7.4.3 Backfilling underwater 250

7.4.4 Additional remarks  250

7.5 In situ density of hydraulically filled non-cohesive soils (R 175) 251

7.5.1 General 251

7.5.2 Empirical values for in situ density  251

7.5.3 In situ density required for port areas 252

7.5.4 Checking the in situ density  252

7.6 In situ density of dumped non-cohesive soils (R 178) 252

7.6.1 General 252

7.6.2 Influences on the achievable in situ density  253

7.7 Dredging underwater slopes (R 138) 254

7.7.1 General 254

7.7.2 Dredging underwater slopes in loose sand 254

7.7.3 Dredging plant 255

7.7.4 Execution of dredging work 255

7.8 Subsidence of non-cohesive soils (R 168) 257

7.9 Soil replacement along a line of piles for a waterfront structure (R 109) 258

7.9.1 General 258

7.9.2 Dredging  259

7.9.3 Quality and procurement of the fill sand 261

7.9.4 Cleaning the base of the excavation before filling with sand  262

7.9.5 Placing the sand fill  263

7.9.6 Checking the sand fill  264

7.10 Dynamic compaction of the soil (R 188)  264

7.11 Vertical drains to accelerate the consolidation of soft cohesive soils (R 93) 265

7.11.1 General 265

7.11.2 Applications 265

7.11.3 Design 265

7.11.4 Design of plastic drains 267

7.11.5 Installation 268

7.12 Consolidation of soft cohesive soils by preloading (R 179) 268

7.12.1 General 268

7.12.2 Applications 269

7.12.3 Bearing capacity of in situ soil  270

7.12.4 Fill material  270

7.12.5 Determining the depth of preload fill 270

7.12.6 Minimum extent of preload fill 273

7.12.7 Soil improvement through vacuum consolidation with vertical drains 273

7.12.8 Execution of soil improvement through vacuum consolidation with vertical drains  274

7.12.9 Checking the consolidation  274

7.12.10 Secondary settlement 275

7.13 Improving the bearing capacity of soft cohesive soils with vertical elements (R 210)  275

7.13.1 General 275

7.13.2 Methods  275

7.13.3 Construction of pile-type loadbearing elements 277

7.13.4 Design of geotextile-encased columns  278

7.13.5 Construction of geotextile-encased columns  279

8 Sheet piling structures 281

8.1 Materials and construction 281

8.1.1 Design and installation of timber sheet pile walls (R 22) 281

8.1.2 Design and installation of reinforced concrete sheet pile walls (R 21) 284

8.1.3 Design and installation of steel sheet pile walls (R 34)  287

8.1.4 Combined steel sheet piling (R 7) 288

8.1.5 Shear-resistant interlock connections for steel sheet piling (R 103) 292

8.1.6 Quality requirements for steels and dimensional tolerances for steel sheet piles (R 67) 296

8.1.7 Acceptance conditions for steel sheet piles and steel piles on site (R 98) 298

8.1.8 Corrosion of steel sheet piling, and countermeasures (R 35)  300

8.1.9 Danger of sand abrasion on sheet piling (R 23) 309

8.1.10 Shock blasting to assist the driving of steel sheet piles (R 183)  309

8.1.11 Driving steel sheet piles (R 118)  312

8.1.12 Driving combined steel sheet piling (R 104) 316

8.1.13 Monitoring during the installation of sheet piles, tolerances (R 105)  321

8.1.14 Noise control – low-noise driving (R 149) 325

8.1.15 Driving of steel sheet piles and steel piles at low temperatures (R 90) 330

8.1.16 Repairing interlock declutching on driven steel sheet piling (R 167)  331

8.1.17 Reinforced steel sheet piling (R 176) 334

8.1.18 Design of piling frames (R 140) 340

8.1.19 Design of welded joints in steel piles and steel sheet piles (R 99)  344

8.1.20 Cutting off the tops of driven steel sections for loadbearing welded connections (R 91) 347

8.1.21 Watertightness of steel sheet piling (R 117)  347

8.1.22 Waterfront structures in regions with mining subsidence (R 121)  350

8.1.23 Vibratory driving of U- and Z-section steel sheet piles (R 202) 353

8.1.24 Water-jetting to assist the driving of steel sheet piles (R 203) 357

8.1.25 Pressing of U- and Z-section steel sheet piles (R 212) 360

8.2 Design of sheet piling  361

8.2.1 General 361

8.2.2 Free-standing sheet piling structures (R 161) 366

8.2.3 Design of sheet piling structures with fixity in the ground and a single anchor (R 77)  367

8.2.4 Design of sheet pile walls with double anchors (R 134) 372

8.2.5 Applying the angle of earth pressure and the analysis in the vertical direction (R 4)  373

8.2.6 Taking account of unfavourable groundwater flows in the passive earth pressure zone (R 199)  386

8.2.7 Verifying the loadbearing capacity of the elements of sheet piling structures (R 20)  386

8.2.8 Selection of embedment depth for sheet piling (R 55) 390

8.2.9 Determining the embedment depth for sheet pile walls with full or partial fixity in the soil (R 56)  391

8.2.10 Steel sheet piling with staggered embedment depths (R 41)  394

8.2.11 Horizontal actions on steel sheet pile walls in the longitudinal direction of the quay (R 132) 397

8.2.12 Design of anchor walls fixed in the ground (R 152)  400

8.2.13 Staggered arrangement of anchor walls (R 42)  401

8.2.14 Steel sheet piling founded on bedrock (R 57) 401

8.2.15 Waterfront sheet piling in unconsolidated, soft cohesive soils, especially in connection with non-sway structures (R 43)  402

8.2.16 Design of single-anchor sheet piling structures in earthquake zones (R 125)  404

8.3 Calculation and design of cofferdams 405

8.3.1 Cellular cofferdams as excavation enclosures and waterfront structures (R 100) 405

8.3.2 Double-wall cofferdams as excavation enclosures and waterfront structures (R 101) 417

8.3.3 Narrow moles in sheet piling (R 162) 422

8.4 Walings, capping beams and anchor connections  424

8.4.1 Design of steel walings for sheet piling (R 29)  424

8.4.2 Verification of steel walings (R 30)  425

8.4.3 Sheet piling walings of reinforced concrete with driven steel anchor piles (R 59)  427

8.4.4 Steel capping beams for sheet piling waterfront structures (R 95)  431

8.4.5 Reinforced concrete capping beams for waterfront structures with steel sheet piling (R 129)  435

8.4.6 Steel nosings to protect reinforced concrete walls and capping beams on waterfront structures (R 94)  441

8.4.7 Auxiliary anchors at the top of steel sheet piling structures (R 133)  444

8.4.8 Screw threads for sheet piling anchors (R 184) 445

8.4.9 Sheet piling anchors in unconsolidated, soft cohesive soils (R 50) 447

8.4.10 Design of protruding quay wall corners with round steel tie rods (R 31) 450

8.4.11 Design and calculation of protruding quay wall corners with raking anchor piles (R 146) 453

8.4.12 High prestressing of high-strength steel anchors for waterfront structures (R 151) 457

8.4.13 Hinged connections between driven steel anchor piles and steel sheet piling structures (R 145)  458

8.5 Verification of stability for anchoring at the lower failure plane (R 10)  469

8.5.1 Stability at the lower failure plane for anchorages with anchor walls 469

8.5.2 Stability at the lower failure plane in unconsolidated, saturated cohesive soils  471

8.5.3 Stability at the lower failure plane with varying soil strata 471

8.5.4 Verification of stability at the lower failure for a quay wall fixed in the soil 472

8.5.5 Stability at the lower failure plane for an anchor wall fixed in the soil 473

8.5.6 Stability at the lower failure plane for anchors with anchor plates  473

8.5.7 Verification of safety against failure of anchoring soil  473

8.5.8 Stability at the lower failure plane for quay walls anchored with anchor piles or grouted anchors at one level  474

8.5.9 Stability at the lower failure plane for quay walls with anchors at more than one level  475

8.5.10 Safety against slope failure 477

9 Tension piles and anchors (R 217) 478

9.1 General 478

9.2 Displacement piles 478

9.2.1 Installation 478

9.2.2 Types  479

9.2.3 Loadbearing capacity of displacement piles 480

9.3 Micropiles 481

9.3.1 Installation 481

9.3.2 Types  482

9.3.3 Loadbearing capacity of micropiles  482

9.4 Special piles 483

9.4.1 General 483

9.4.2 Prefabricated raking piles  483

9.5 Anchors 484

9.5.1 Construction 484

9.5.2 Types  484

9.5.3 Loadbearing capacity of anchors  485

10 Quay walls and superstructures in concrete  486

10.1 Design principles for quay walls and superstructures in concrete (R 17) 486

10.1.1 General principles 486

10.1.2 Edge protection 486

10.1.3 Facing  487

10.2 Design and construction of reinforced concrete components in waterfront structures (R 72)  487

10.2.1 Preliminary remarks 487

10.2.2 Concrete  487

10.2.3 Construction joints 488

10.2.4 Structures with large longitudinal dimensions 489

10.2.5 Crack width limitation  490

10.3 Formwork in areas affected by tides and waves (R 169) 491

10.4 Box caissons as waterfront structures in seaports (R 79) 491

10.4.1 General 491

10.4.2 Design 492

10.4.3 Safety against sliding 492

10.4.4 Construction details  493

10.4.5 Construction work 493

10.5 Compressed-air caissons as waterfront structures (R 87) 493

10.5.1 General 493

10.5.2 Verification  495

10.5.3 Safety against sliding 495

10.5.4 Construction details 495

10.5.5 Work on site 497

10.5.6 Frictional resistance during sinking  497

10.6 Design and construction of block-type quay walls (R 123) 498

10.6.1 Basic principles 498

10.6.2 Forces acting on a block wall 500

10.6.3 Design 501

10.7 Design of quay walls using open caissons (R 147) 503

10.7.1 General 503

10.7.2 Verification  504

10.7.3 Construction details  504

10.7.4 Work on site 506

10.7.5 Frictional resistance during sinking 506

10.7.6 Preparation of the subsoil 506

10.8 Design and construction of solid waterfront structures (e.g. blocks, box caissons, compressed-air caissons) in earthquake zones (R 126)  507

10.8.1 General 507

10.8.2 Active and passive earth pressures, excess water pressure, variable loads 507

10.8.3 Safety  507

10.8.4 Base of the wall 507

10.9 Use and design of bored cast-in-place piles (R 86) 507

10.9.1 General 507

10.9.2 Design 507

10.9.3 Construction of bored cast-in-place pile walls 509

10.9.4 Construction guidance  509

10.10 Use and design of diaphragm walls (R 144)  510

10.10.1 General 510

10.10.2 Verifying the stability of the open trench  512

10.10.3 Composition of the supporting slurry 512

10.10.4 Diaphragm wall construction 513

10.10.5 Concrete and reinforcement  513

10.10.6 Guidance for the design of diaphragm walls  514

10.11 Survey prior to repairing concrete components in hydraulic engineering structures (R 194)  515

10.11.1 General 515

10.11.2 Tests performed on the structure  516

10.11.3 Tests performed in the laboratory  517

10.11.4 Theoretical investigations 518

10.12 Repairing concrete components in hydraulic engineering structures (R 195) 518

10.12.1 General 518

10.12.2 Assessing the actual condition  519

10.12.3 Planning the repair works 520

10.12.4 Execution of the repair works 521

11 Pile bents and trestles 528

11.1 General 528

11.2 Calculating subsequently strengthened pile bents/trestles (R 45) 528

11.2.1 General 528

11.2.2 Loads  529

11.2.3 Calculation for cohesive substrata 530

11.2.4 Load from excess water pressure  530

11.3 Design of plane pile bents (R 78)  531

11.4 Design of spatial pile trestles (R 157)534

11.4.1 Special structures designed as spatial pile trestles  535

11.4.2 Free-standing pile trestles 535

11.4.3 Structural system and calculations 537

11.4.4 Construction guidance  537

11.5 Design of piled structures in earthquake zones (R 127) 539

11.5.1 General 539

11.5.2 Active and passive earth pressures, excess water pressure, variable loads  539

11.5.3 Resisting the horizontal inertial forces of the superstructure  539

12 Protection and stabilisation structures  541

12.1 Embankment stabilisation on inland waterways (R 211) 541

12.1.1 General 541

12.1.2 Loads on inland waterways  541

12.1.3 Construction of bank protection 542

12.1.4 Toe protection  545

12.1.5 Junctions  546

12.1.6 Design of revetments 547

12.2 Slopes in seaports and tidal inland ports (R 107)  547

12.2.1 General 547

12.2.2 Examples of impermeable revetments550

12.3 Use of geotextile filters in bank and bottom protection (R 189) 552

12.3.1 General 552

12.3.2 Design principles  552

12.3.3 Requirements 553

12.3.4 Additional measures 553

12.3.5 General installation guidelines  554

12.4 Scour and protection against scour in front of waterfront structures (R 83) 555

12.4.1 General 555

12.4.2 Choosing a greater design depth (allowance for scouring) 556

12.4.3 Covering the bottom (scour protection) 557

12.4.4 Current velocity at revetment due to propeller wash  560

12.4.5 Designing bottom protection 564

12.5 Scour protection at piers and dolphins  566

12.6 Installation of mineral impervious linings underwater and their connection to waterfront structures (R 204)  567

12.6.1 Concept 567

12.6.2 Installation in dry conditions 567

12.6.3 Installation in wet conditions 567

12.6.4 Connections 568

12.7 Flood defence walls in seaports (R 165) 569

12.7.1 General 569

12.7.2 Critical water levels  569

12.7.3 Excess water pressure and unit weight of soil 570

12.7.4 Minimum embedment depths for flood defence walls 571

12.7.5 Special loads on flood defence walls 571

12.7.6 Guidance on designing flood defence walls in slopes 572

12.7.7 Constructional measures  572

12.7.8 Buried services in the region of flood defence walls  573

12.8 Dumped moles and breakwaters (R 137)  574

12.8.1 General 574

12.8.2 Stability analyses, settlement and subsidence, guidance on construction  574

12.8.3 Specifying the geometry of the structure 575

12.8.4 Designing the armour layer  580

12.8.5 Construction of breakwaters 582

12.8.6 Construction and use of plant 583

12.8.7 Settlement and subsidence 585

12.8.8 Invoicing for installed quantities  586

13 Dolphins (R 218) 587

13.1 General principles 587

13.1.1 Dolphins – purposes and types 587

13.1.2 Stiffness of the system  587

13.1.3 Loads on dolphins and design principles  587

13.1.4 Actions 590

13.1.5 Safety concept  592

13.2 Design of dolphins 592

13.2.1 Soil–structure interaction and the resulting design variables  592

13.2.2 Required energy absorption capacity of breasting dolphins 599

13.2.3 Other calculations 600

13.3 Construction and arrangement of dolphins (R 128)601

13.3.1 Type of dolphin structure  601

13.3.2 Layout of dolphins 601

13.3.3 Equipment for dolphins 602

13.3.4 Advice for selecting materials  603

14 Inspection and monitoring of waterfront structures (R 193) 604

14.1 General 604

14.2 Documentation 606

14.3 Carrying out structural inspections 606

14.3.1 Structural check/Principle check 606

14.3.2 Structural monitoring/Intermediate inspection 607

14.3.3 Structural survey/Routine inspection 608

14.4 Inspection intervals  608

14.5 Maintenance management systems 609

Annex I Bibliography 610

I.1 Annual technical reports 610

I.2 Books and papers  611

I.3 Technical standards 623

Annex II Notation  626

II.1a Latin lower-case letters  626

II.1b Latin upper-case letters  627

II.1c Greek letters  629

II.2 Subscripts and indexes  630

II.3 Abbreviations 631

II.4 Designations for water levels and wave heights  632

Annex III List of keywords 633