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Recommendations on Piling (EA Pfähle)

Recommendations on Piling (EA Pfähle)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechnik e.V. / German Geotechnical Society (Editor), Alan Johnson (Translator)

ISBN: 978-3-433-60411-3

Apr 2014

496 pages


This handbook provides a complete and detailed overview of piling systems and their application. The design and construction of piled foundations is based on Eurocode 7 and DIN 1054 edition 2010 as well as the European construction codes DIN EN 1536 (Bored piles), DIN EN 12699 (Displacement piles) and DIN EN 14199 (Micropiles). These recommendations also deal with
- categorisation of piling systems,
- actions on piles from structural loading, negative skin friction and side pressure,
- pile resistances from static and dynamic pile test loading as well as extensive tables with the pile load-bearing capacity of nearly all piling systems based on values from practical experience,
- pile groups,
- performance of static and dynamic test loading and integrity tests,
- load-bearing behaviour and verifications for piles under cyclical, dynamic and impact actions
- quality assurance for construction.
An appendix with numerous calculation examples completes the work.
As part of the approval procedure for offshore wind energy structures, the Federal Office for Shipping and Hydrography (BSH) demands verifications according to the new Chapter 13 ("Load-bearing behaviour and verifications for piles under cyclical, dynamical and impact actions") of the EA Pfähle (the recommendations of the Piling working group - 2nd edition), which deals with external pile resistance for the foundations of offshore wind energy structures and the types of verifications to be provided under cyclical actions.
The publication of the EA-Pfähle recommendations by the Piling working group of the German Society for Geotechnics (DGGT), which works with the same members as the piling standards committee NA 00-05-07, is intended to provide assistance for engineers active in the design, calculation and construction of piled foundations. The recommendations can thus be considered as rules of the technology and as a supplement to the available codes and standards.

Members of the AK 2.1 Piling Committee of the German Geotechnical Society V

Preface of the English Version of the Recommendations of the Piling Committee of the German Geotechnical Society VII

Preface of the 2nd German edition IX

1 Introduction to the Recommendations and their Application Principles 1

1.1 National and International Regulations for Piling Works 1

1.2 Types of Analysis and Limit States using the Partial Safety Factor Approach 2

1.3 Planning and Testing Pile Foundations 7

2 Pile Systems 9

2.1 Overview and Classification into Pile Systems 9

2.2 Pile Construction 12

2.3 Foundation elements similar to piles 25

3 Pile Foundation Design and Analysis Principles 27

3.1 Pile Foundation Systems 27

3.2 Geotechnical Investigations for Pile Foundations 32

3.3 Classification of Soils for Pile Foundations 39

3.4 Pile Systems for the Execution of Excavations and for Retaining Structures 40

3.5 Piles for the Stabilisation of Slopes 43

3.6 Use of sacrificial Linings 44

4 Actions and Effects 47

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 Pile Foundation Loads Imposed by the Structure 48

4.3 Installation Effects on Piles 48

4.4 Negative Skin Friction 49

4.5 Lateral Pressure 54

4.6 Additional Effects on Raking Piles Resulting from Ground Deformations 62

4.7 Foundation Piles in Slopes and at Retaining Structures 65

5 Bearing Capacity and Resistances of Single Piles 69

5.1 General 69

5.2 Determining Pile Resistances from Static Pile Load Tests 70

5.3 Determining Pile Resistances from Dynamic Pile Load Tests 72

5.4 Axial Pile Resistances Based on Empirical Data 75

5.5 Bored Piles with Enlarged Bases 113

5.6 Additional Methods Using the EC 7-1 and EC 7-2 Handbooks 114

5.7 Pile Resistances for Grouted Shafts and Bases. 114

5.8 Resistances of Piles Under Lateral Loads 115

5.9 Pile Resistances Under Dynamic Actions 116

5.10 Internal Pile Capacity 116

5.11 Numerical Analyses of the Capacity of Single Piles 119

6 Stability Analyses 121

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Limit State Equations 121

6.3 Bearing Capacity Analysis 122

6.4 Serviceability Analysies 125

6.5 Pile Groups and Grillages 127

6.6 Piled Raft Foundations 127

7 Grillage Analysis 129

7.1 AnalysisModels and Procedures 129

7.2 Non-linear Pile Bearing Behaviour in Grillage Analysis 130

8 Analysis and Verification of Pile Groups 131

8.1 Actions and Effects 131

8.2 Bearing Capacity and Resistances of Pile Groups 133

8.3 Bearing Capacity Analyses 152

8.4 Serviceability Analyses 156

8.5 Higher Accuracy Pile Group Analyses 157

9 Static Pile Load Tests 159

9.1 Introduction 159

9.2 Static Axial Pile Load Tests 159

9.3 Static Lateral Load Test 182

9.4 Static Axial Load Tests on Micropiles (Composite Piles) 194

10 Dynamic pile load tests 209

10.1 Introduction. 209

10.2 Range of Application and General Conditions 209

10.3 Theoretical Principles 210

10.4 Description of Testing Methods, Test Planning and Execution 213

10.5 Evaluation and Interpretation of Dynamic Load Tests 225

10.6 Calibrating Dynamic Pile Load Tests 231

10.7 Qualifications of Testing Institutes and Personnel 234

10.8 Documentation and Reporting 234

10.9 Testing Driving Rig Suitability 236

11 Quality Assurance during Pile Execution 239

11.1 Introduction. 239

11.2 Bored Piles 239

11.3 Displacement Piles 253

11.4 Grouted Micropiles (Composite Piles). 255

12 Pile Integrity Testing 259

12.1 Purpose and Procedures 259

12.2 Low Strain Integrity Tests 260

12.3 Ultrasonic Integrity Testing 270

12.4 Testing Piles by Core Drilling. 279

12.5 Other Specific TestingMethods 282

13 Bearing Capacity and Analyses of Piles under Cyclic, Dynamic and Impact Actions 285

13.1 Introduction 285

13.2 Cyclic, Dynamic and Impact Actions 286

13.3 Supplementary Geotechnical Investigations 292

13.4 Bearing Behaviour and Resistances under Cyclic Loads 294

13.5 Bearing Behaviour and Resistances under Dynamic Loads 299

13.6 Bearing Behaviour and Resistances under Impact Loads 300

13.7 Stability Analyses of Cyclic, Axially Loaded Piles 301

13.8 Stability Analyses of Cyclical, Laterally Loaded Piles 304

13.9 Stability Analyses of Dynamic or Impact-loaded Piles 306

Annex A Terms, Partial Safety Factors and Principles for Analysis 307

Annex B Example Calculations for Pile Resistance Analysis and Verifications 331

Annex C Examples of Dynamic Pile Load Testing and Integrity Testing 395

Annex D Analysis Methods and Examples for Cyclically Loaded Piles (Informative) 417

Literatur 459

List of Advertisers 469