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Renminbi Rising: A New Global Monetary System Emerges



Renminbi Rising: A New Global Monetary System Emerges

William H. Overholt, Guonan Ma, Cheung Kwok Law

ISBN: 978-1-119-21897-5 December 2015 248 Pages

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Critical analysis of RMB internationalization and the coming global currency shift

Renminbi Rising charts the emergence of China's internationalizing currency and provides an in-depth analysis of the global repercussions. Written by a team of renown economics researchers, this book describes the pressures that enabled the emergence of a new global monetary system and why China's Renminbi (RMB) became the default 'second in line' as the U.S. receded from leadership. Policy makers and regulators will appreciate the examination of the motivations behind those driving the shift, and financial professionals will find valuable guidance in the discussion surrounding business opportunities that the RMB brings to the table. Coverage includes the emergence of new Chinese-sponsored financial institutions, the scale of various RMB businesses and the coming transformation of the global financial system.

Effective management of international monetary affairs has never been more fundamental to the global economic recovery. The rapid emergence of China's RMB is a transformative event of global significance, and this book provides the context you need to understand the depth and breadth of changes on the horizon.

  • Understand why a new global monetary system is needed
  • Consider the outcomes as China emerges and the U.S. recedes
  • Learn the context and motivations behind principal players' strategies
  • Discover the scale of opportunities presented by the rise of the RMB

It is essential for finance professionals and economic policy makers to understand the drivers, progress and likely trajectory of the RMB internationalization and to fully grasp the implications for the global financial system, international business and supporting financial products and services. Renminbi Rising offers detailed analysis of the key opportunities and threats inherent in this major economic shift.

List of Figures xi

List of Tables xiii

Foreword xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Author xix

CHAPTER 1 Internationalizing the RMB 1

The Conditions for Becoming a Global Currency 2

Business and RMB 10

RMB-Product Markets 11

Reserve Currency 14

The Emerging Monetary Order 16

CHAPTER 2 The Rise and Fall of Currencies – Historical Lessons for the RMB 21

Risks in International Monetary System Transitions 23

The Role of Eurodollars in the 2008 Global Financial Crisis 26

2008: Year Zero for a New International Monetary System? 27

Conditions for Currency Internationalization: Market Demand and Institutional Supply 30

Institutional Inertia and Disruptive Events 35

Offshore Currencies and International Liquidity 36

Current International Reactions to the RMB’s Rise 41

RMB Internationalization 44

Conclusion 46

References 47

CHAPTER 3 Economic and Institutional Foundations for the Rise of the RMB 49

Economic Foundation 49

Surprises 58

New Growth Engines 60

Capital-Account Liberalization 62

Institutional Quality 68

Conclusion 80

References 81

CHAPTER 4 Can the Chinese Bond Market Support a Potential Global Renminbi? 83

Overview of the Chinese Bond Market 84

Chinese Treasury Market in International Perspective 91

A Dilemma and a Bold Public-Debt Consolidation Scheme 98

Government-Backed Debt Securities 103

Conclusion 107

References 107

CHAPTER 5 Waxing and Waning of the Chinese Stock and Banking Markets 109

Chinese Stock Market: Growing Despite Immaturity Flaws 109

A Massive Chinese Banking Market Opening 125

Conclusion 133

References 133

CHAPTER 6 Rising FX Turnover of the RMB 135

Could the Market Accommodate More Global Currencies? 135

What Determines the FX Liquidity of the RMB? 138

Potential for Rising RMB Turnover by Market Segment 143

Conclusion 149

References 150

CHAPTER 7 A Spreading Global Network for RMB Trade 151

The RMB’s International Position 152

Hong Kong Still the Dominant Offshore RMB Center 155

More Offshore Centers Catch Up to Spread a Global Network 158

Prospects for Offshore RMB Centers 164

Conclusion 169

References 169

CHAPTER 8 Brief Examples of Business Use of the Internationalizing RMB 171

Samsung’s Use of RMB to Reduce Foreign Exchange Conversion Costs 171

Alstom’s Use of RMB as Corporate Treasury Currency 173

Chinese Importers’ Profit Incentives from Use of RMB Trade Settlement: Changhong 175

Conclusion 178

Reference 178

CHAPTER 9 The RMB as a Reserve Currency 179

Global Perspectives 179

Scale of RMB Holdings 181

Drivers of Change 182

Exchanging RMB in a Crisis 190

Onshore and Offshore Access 190

Offshore Alternatives 191

Conservatives Change Course 192

Roadblocks Ahead? 193

RMB Inclusion in SDR 195

Capital-Account Reform 197

Conclusion 198

References 199

CHAPTER 10 Concluding Reflections 201

Appendix A: China RMB Financial Statistics and Forecasts by Other Institutions 207

Glossary 213

Index 215