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Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries



Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries

Guangjin Zhao

ISBN: 978-1-119-32187-3 May 2017 432 Pages


A comprehensive guide to the reuse and recycling of lithium-ion power batteries—fundamental concepts, relevant technologies, and business models

Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries explores ways in which retired lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can create long-term, stable profits within a well-designed business operation. Based on a large volume of experimental data collected in the author’s lab, it demonstrates how LIBs reuse can effectively cut the cost of Electric Vehicles (EVs) by extending the service lifetime of the batteries. In addition to the cost benefits, Dr. Guangjin Zhao discusses how recycling and reuse can significantly reduce environmental and safety hazards, thus complying with the core principles of environment protection: recycle, reuse and reduce.

Offering coverage of both the fundamental theory and applied technologies involved in LIB reuse and recycling, the book's contents are based on the simulated and experimental results of a hybrid micro-grid demonstration project and recycling system. In the opening section on battery reuse, Dr. Zhao introduces key concepts, including battery dismantling, sorting, second life prediction, re-packing, system integration and relevant technologies. He then builds on that foundation to explore advanced topics, such as resource recovery, harmless treatment, secondary pollution control, and zero emissions technologies.

Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries:

•       Provides timely, in-depth coverage of both the reuse and recycling aspects of lithium-ion batteries

•       Is based on extensive simulation and experimental research performed by the author, as well as an extensive review of the current literature on the subject

•       Discusses the full range of critical issues, from battery dismantling and sorting to secondary pollution control and zero emissions technologies

•       Includes business models and strategies for secondary use and recycling of power lithium-ion batteries

Reuse and Recycling of Lithium-Ion Power Batteries is an indispensable resource for researchers, engineers, and business professionals who work in industries involved in energy storage systems and battery recycling, especially with the manufacture and use (and reuse) of lithium-ion batteries. It is also a valuable supplementary text for advanced undergraduates and postgraduate students studying energy storage, battery recycling, and battery management.

Preface xv

Introduction xvii

1 General Development of Electric Vehicles and Power Batteries 1

1.1 Brief History of Electric Vehicle Development 1

1.2 Types and Developments of Electric Vehicles 8

1.3 The Electric Vehicle Industry’s Ideas and Policies at Home and Abroad 16

1.4 The Basic Structure and Working Principles of Electrochemical Power Sources 21

1.5 Classification and Fundamental Parameters of Lithium]Ion Power Batteries 26

References 34

2 Assessment Technology Platform and Its Application for Reuse of Power Batteries 37

2.1 Retired Power Batteries and Their Reuse 37

2.2 Information Systems for Reuse for Retired Batteries 52

2.3 Sorting Assessment Technology for Retired Batteries 57

2.4 Life Prediction and Modeling Simulation of Retired Batteries 80

2.5 Performance Testing and Analysis Techniques of Retired Batteries 100

2.6 Basis and Technical Requirements for Retired Battery Repacking 167

2.7 Energy Equilibrium and Heat Management of Retired Batteries 184

2.8 Design of Box and BMS for Retired Batteries 218

References 252

3 Examples for Reuse of Power Batteries 261

3.1 Research for Microgrid Simulation Platform 261

3.2 Multidimensional Sorting Variables of Retired Batteries and Target Practical Reuse Applications 275

3.3 Integrated and Monitoring System of Energy Storage Based on Retired Batteries 281

3.4 Application of Retired Batteries in a Wind–Solar–Energy Storage Microgrid 288

3.5 Battery]Operated Motor Using a Retired Battery 296

3.6 Development and Application of Other Energy Storage Systems Based on Retired Batteries 303

3.7 Applicability, and Technical and Economic Assessments, for Reuse of Retired Power Batteries 314

References 333

4 Resource Utilization and Harmless Treatment of Power Batteries 335

4.1 Environmental and Resource Concerns Regarding Spent Lithium]Ion Batteries 335

4.2 The Main Problems, Challenges, and Future Prospects from Legislation and Technology for Recycling Spent Lithium]Ion Batteries 346

4.3 Pretreatment for Recycling Power Batteries 351

4.4 Resource Utilization and Harmless Treatment of Power Batteries 356

4.5 “Three Wastes” Treatment and Wastewater “Zero Discharging” 365

4.6 Prevention of Secondary Pollution during the Battery]Recycling Process 367

4.7 Mechanical Processing Equipment for Recycling Spent Lithium]Ion Batteries 368

4.8 Automated Battery]Recycling Line Design 373

References 375

5 Reuse of Power Batteries, and Common Safety Problems with Recovery Processes 379

5.1 Safety Assessment for Retired Batteries 379

5.2 Safety Issues When Dismantling and Repacking the Battery Module 386

5.3 Safety Monitoring Techniques for Reuse Processing 389

5.4 Safety

Requirements for Spent Battery Storage 390

5.5 Safety Protection Measurements for Battery Recycling and Treatment 391

References 392

6 Market Development of Reuse and Recycling of Power Batteries 395

6.1 Exploration of New Development Ideas for Reuse and Recovery of Power Batteries under the “Charging” and “Battery-Swapping” Models 395

6.2 Reusing a Retired Battery: A New Model for Decreasing the Cost of Batteries 403

6.3 Battery Recycling and a Circular Economy 406

6.4 Designing Thoughts for Policy Support and Marketing Development 407

References 409

Index 411