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Reverse Osmosis: Industrial Processes and Applications, 2nd Edition

Reverse Osmosis: Industrial Processes and Applications, 2nd Edition

Jane Kucera

ISBN: 978-1-118-63974-0

Jun 2015

472 pages

Description

This new edition of the bestselling Reverse Osmosis is the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the process of reverse osmosis in industrial applications, a technology that is becoming increasingly more important as more and more companies choose to “go green.”  This book covers all of the processes and equipment necessary to design, operate, and troubleshoot reverse osmosis systems, from the fundamental principles of reverse osmosis technology and membranes to the much more advanced engineering principles necessary for designing a reverse osmosis system. 

 

The second edition is an enhanced version of the original best seller.  Each chapter has been reviewed and updated.  Revised features include more detail on various pretreatment techniques such as greensand and pyrolusite pretreatment media.  The design projection chapter has been edited to include up-to-date information on current projection programs.  A new section on microbial fouling control featuring chlorine and alternative techniques is included to address the needs of most RO systems.  Also, a discussion on forward osmosis is added as an alternative and/or companion technology to reverse osmosis for water treatment.  The second edition includes all updated, basic, in-depth information for design, operation, and optimization of reverse osmosis systems.    

 

Earlier chapters cover the basic principles, the history of reverse osmosis, basic terms and definitions, and essential equipment.  The book then goes into pretreatment processes and system design, then, finally, operations and troubleshooting.  The author includes a section on the impact of other membrane technologies and even includes a “Frequently Asked Questions” chapter.  

Preface xv

Acknowledgements for the First Edition xvii

Acknowledgements for the Second Edition xix

Part 1: Fundamentals

1 Introduction and History of Development 3

1.1 Introduction 3

References 16

2 Reverse Osmosis Principles 19

2.1 Osmosis 19

2.2 Reverse Osmosis 21

2.3 Dead-End Filtration 22

2.4 Cross-Flow Filtration 23

3 Basic Terms and Definitions 25

3.1 Reverse Osmosis System Flow Rating 25

3.2 Recovery 26

3.3 Rejection 28

3.4 Flux 31

3.5 Concentration Polarization 33

3.6 Beta 34

3.7 Fouling 35

3.8 Scaling 38

3.9 Silt Density Index 40

3.10 Modified Fouling Index 43

3.11 Langelier Saturation Index 46

References 47

4 Membranes 49

4.1 Transport Models 50

4.2 Membrane Materials 54

4.3 Membrane Modules 65

4.4 Commercially-Available Membranes 83

References 91

5 Basic Flow Patterns 95

5.1 Arrays 95

5.2 Recycle 100

5.3 Double Pass 101

5.4 Multiple Trains 103

6 Reverse Osmosis Skids 105

6.1 Cartridge Filters 106

6.2 Reverse Osmosis Feed Pumps 109

6.3 Pressure Vessels 116

6.4 Manifolding—Materials of Construction 123

6.5 Instrumentation 124

6.6 Controls 125

6.7 Data Acquisition and Management 127

6.8 Reverse Osmosis Skid 129

6.9 Auxiliary Equipment 129

6.10 Other Design Considerations 130

References 131

Part 2: Pretreatment

7 Water Quality Guidelines 135

7.1 Suspended Solids 135

7.2 Microbes 137

7.3 Organics 139

7.4 Color 139

7.5 Metals 140

7.6 Hydrogen Sulfide 141

7.7 Silica 145

7.8 Calcium Carbonate 150

7.9 Trace Metals—Barium and Strontium 151

7.10 Chlorine 152

7.11 Calcium 153

7.12 Exposure to Other Chemicals 155

References 155

8 Techniques and Technologies 157

8.1 Mechanical Pretreatment 159

8.2 Chemical Pretreatment 187

8.3 Combination Mechanical Plus Chemical Pretreatment—Lime Softening 201

8.4 Sequencing of Pretreatment Technologies 204

8.5 Membrane Biofouling and Alternative Disinfectants 206

References 230

Part 3: System Design

9 Design Considerations 237

9.1 Feed Water Quality 238

9.2 Temperature 242

9.3 Pressure 244

9.4 Feed Water Flow 245

9.5 Concentrate Flow 246

9.6 Beta 246

9.7 Recovery 249

9.8 pH 251

9.9 Flux 253

References 253

10 RO Design and Design Software 255

10.1 Dow WAVE – Water Application Value Engine 258

10.2 Toray DS2 275

10.3 Hydranautics IMS Design 281

References 282

Part 4: Operations

11 On-Line Operations 285

11.1 Reverse Osmosis Performance Monitoring 285

11.2 Data Collection 286

11.3 Data Analysis and Normalization 287

11.4 Preventive Maintenance 301

References 303

12 Performance Degradation 305

12.1 Normalized Permeate Flow 305

12.2 Normalized Salt Rejection 308

12.3 Pressure Drop 310

References 311

13 Off -Line Operations 313

13.1 System Flush 313

13.2 Membrane Cleaning 316

13.3 Membrane Lay-Up 326

References 328

Part 5: Troubleshooting

14 Troubleshooting 331

14.1 Mechanical Evaluation 333

14.2 General Performance Issues 334

14.3 System Design and Performance Projections 334

14.4 Data Assessment 336

14.5 Water Sampling 339

14.6 Membrane Integrity Testing 339

14.7 Profiling and Probing 340

14.8 Membrane Autopsy 342

References 352

Part 6: System Engineering

15 Issues Concerning System Engineering 355

15.1 Sodium Water Softening 355

15.2 Reverse Osmosis Sizing and Capacity 364

15.3 Membrane Cleaning: On-Site versus Off -Site 365

15.4 Reverse Osmosis Reject Disposal Options 367

References 371

16 Impact of Other Membrane Technologies 373

16.1 Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration 373

16.2 Nanofiltration 388

16.3 Forward Osmosis 392

16.4 Continuous Electrodeionization 398

16.5 HERO™ Process 408

References 413

Part 7: Frequently Asked Questions

17 Frequently Asked Questions 419

17.1 General 419

17.2 Operational 421

17.3 Equipment 433

References 435

Index 437