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Rivers in the Landscape, 2nd Edition

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Rivers in the Landscape, 2nd Edition

Ellen Wohl

ISBN: 978-1-119-53541-6 February 2020 Wiley-Blackwell 528 Pages

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Acknowledgements

1. Introduction

1.1. Connectivity and inequality

1.2. Six degrees of connection

1.3. Rivers as integrators

1.4. Organization of this volume

1.5. Understanding rivers

1.5.1. The Colorado Front Range

1.6. Only connect

2. Creating Channels and Channel Networks

2.1. Generating water, solute, and sediments

2.1.1. Generating water

2.1.2. Generating sediment and solutes

2.2. Getting water, solutes, and sediment downslope to channels

2.2.1. Downslope pathways of water

2.2.2. Downslope movement of sediment

2.2.3. Processes & patterns of water chemistry entering channels

2.2.4. Influence of the riparian zone on fluxes into channels

2.3. Human influences on fluxes from uplands to channels

2.3.1. Climate change

2.3.2. Altered land cover

2.3.2.1. Deforestation

2.3.2.2. Afforestation

2.3.2.3. Grazing

2.3.2.4. Crops

2.3.2.5. Urbanization

2.3.2.6. upland mining

2.3.2.7. land drainage

2.3.2.8. Commercial recreational property development

2.4. Channel initiation

2.5. Extension & development of the drainage network

2.5.1. Morphometric indices and scaling laws

2.5.2. Optimality

2.6. Spatial differentiation within drainage basins

2.7. Summary

Channel Processes I

3. Water Dynamics

3.1. Hydraulics

3.1.1. Flow classification

3.1.2. Energy, flow state, and hydraulic jumps

3.1.3. Uniform flow equations and flow resistance

3.1.4. Velocity and turbulence

3.1.5. Measures of energy exerted against the channel boundaries

3.1.6. Numerical models of hydraulics

3.2. Hydrology

3.2.1. Measuring discharge

3.2.2. Indirectly estimating discharge

3.2.3. Modeling discharge

3.2.4. Flood frequency analysis

3.2.5. Hydrographs and flow regime

3.2.6. Other parameters used to characterize discharge

3.2.7. Hyporheic exchange and hydrology

3.2.8.  River hydrology in cold regions

3.2.9.  human influences on hydrology

3.2.9.1. Flow regulation

3.2.9.2. River corridor engineering

3.2.10.  The natural flow regime

3.3. Summary

Channel Processes II

4. Fluvial Sediment Dynamics

4.1. The channel bed and initiation of motion

4.1.1. Bed sediment characterization

4.1.2. Entrainment of non-cohesive sediment

4.1.2.1. Forces acting on a grain

4.1.2.2. Grain properties

4.1.2.3. Turbulence

4.1.2.4. Biotic processes

4.1.3. Erosion of cohesive beds

4.1.3.1. Erosion of bedrock

4.1.3.2. Erosion of cohesive sediment

4.2. Sediment transport

4.2.1. Dissolved load

4.2.1.1. Nitrogen

4.2.1.2. Carbon

4.2.1.3. Trace metals

4.2.1.4. Other environments

4.2.2. Suspended load

4.2.3. Bed load

4.2.3.1. Bed load in channels with coarse-grained substrate: coarse surface layer

4.2.3.2. Bed load in channels with coarse-grained substrate: characteristics of grain movements

4.2.3.3. Bed load in channels with coarse-grained substrate: controls on bed load dynamics

4.2.3.4. Estimating bed load flux

4.2.3.5. Field measurements of bed load

4.3. Bedforms

4.3.1. Readily mobile bedforms

4.3.2. Infrequently mobile bedforms

4.3.2.1. Particle clusters

4.3.2.2. Transverse ribs

4.3.2.3. Steep alluvial channel bedforms

4.3.2.4. Step-pool channels

4.3.2.5. Pool-riffle channels

4.3.2.6. Bars

4.3.3. Bedforms in cohesive sediments

4.4. In-channel depositional processes

4.5. Downstream trends in grain size

4.6. Bank stability & erosion

4.7. Sediment budgets

4.8. Human influences on sediment dynamics

4.9. The natural sediment regime

4.10. Summary

Channel Processes III

5. Large Wood Dynamics

5.1. The continuum of vegetation in river corridors

5.2. Recruitment of wood to river corridors

5.3. Wood entrainment and transport

5.4. Wood deposition

5.5. Wood storage

5.6. Wood interactions with water & sediment

5.7. Human influences on wood dynamics

5.8. The natural wood regime

5.9. Summary

6. Channel Forms

6.1. Cross sectional geometry

6.1.1. Bankfull, dominant, and effective discharge

6.1.2. Width to depth ratio

6.1.3. Hydraulic geometry

6.1.3.1. At-a-station hydraulic geometry

6.1.3.2. Downstream hydraulic geometry

6.1.4. Lane’s balance

6.1.5. Complex response

6.1.6. Channel evolution models

6.2. Channel planform

6.2.1. Straight channels

6.2.2. Meandering channels

6.2.3. Wandering channels

6.2.4. Braided channels

6.2.5. Anabranching channels

6.2.6. Compound channels

6.2.7. Karst channels

6.2.8. Continuum concept

6.2.9. River metamorphosis

6.3. Confluences

6.4. Bedrock channels

6.5. River gradient

6.5.1. Longitudinal profile

6.5.2. Stream gradient index

6.5.3. Knickpoints

6.6. Adjustment of channel form

6.6.1. Extremal hypotheses of channel adjustment

6.6.2. Nonlinear behavior and alternative states

6.6.3. Geomorphic effects of floods

6.7. Human influences on channel form

6.8. Summary

7. Extra-Channel Environments

7.1. Floodplains

7.1.1. Floodplain functions

7.1.2. Floodplain hydrology

7.1.3. Depositional processes and floodplain stratigraphy

7.1.4. Erosional processes and floodplain turnover times

7.1.5. Downstream trends in floodplain form and process

7.1.6. Classification of floodplains

7.1.7. Human influences on floodplains

7.2. Terraces

7.2.1. Terrace classifications

7.2.2. Mechanisms of terrace formation & preservation

7.2.3. Terraces as paleoprofiles & paleoenvironmental indicators

7.3. Alluvial fans

7.3.1. Erosional and depositional processes

7.3.2. Fan geometry and stratigraphy

7.3.3. Mapping, studying, and living on fans

7.4. Deltas

7.4.1. Processes of erosion & deposition

7.4.2. Delta morphology and stratigraphy

7.4.3. Paleoenvironmental records

7.4.4. Deltas in the Anthropocene

7.5. Estuaries

7.6. Summary

8. Rivers in the Landscape

8.1. Rivers and topography

8.1.1. Tectonics, topography, and large rivers

8.1.2. Indicators of relations between rivers and landscape evolution

8.1.3. Tectonic influences on river geometry

8.1.4. Effects of river incision on tectonics

8.1.5. Bedrock channel incision and landscape evolution

8.2. Climatic signatures

8.2.1. High latitudes

8.2.2. Low latitudes

8.2.3. Warm drylands

8.3. Spatial differentitation along a river

8.4. Connectivity

8.5. River management in an environmental context

8.5.1. Reference conditions

8.5.2. Restoration

8.5.3. Instream, channel maintenance, and environmental flows

8.5.4. River health

8.6. Rivers with a history

8.7. The greater context

Index