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Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances

Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances

Jehuda Greener (Editor), Glen Pearson (Editor), Miko Cakmak (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-16220-9 March 2018 432 Pages

 Hardcover

In Stock

$195.00

Description

A single-volume resource featuring state-of-the art reviews of key elements of the roll-to-roll manufacturing processing methodology

 

Roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing is an important manufacturing technology platform used extensively for mass-producing a host of film-type products in several traditional industries such as printing, silver-halide photography, and paper. Over the last two decades, some of the methodologies and know-how of R2R manufacturing have been extended and adapted in many new technology areas, including microelectronics, display, photovoltaics, and microfluidics. This comprehensive book presents the state-of-the-art unit operations of the R2R manufacturing technology, providing a practical resource for scientists, engineers, and practitioners not familiar with the fundamentals of R2R technology.

 

Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances reviews new developments in areas such as flexible glass, display, and photovoltaics and covers a number of process innovations implemented recently to extend and improve the capabilities of traditional R2R lines. It covers such topics as: coating and solidification processes, in-line vacuum deposition, drying, web handling and winding, polymer film substrates, novel hybrid composite films, flexible solar cells and more.  Additionally, this book:

 

  • Examines key elements (unit operations) of the R2R technology, and discusses how these elements are utilized and integrated to achieve desired process efficiencies in a host of applications.
  • Illustrates several established and novel application areas where R2R processing is utilized in current or future products.
  • Discusses process design methodology and key advantages of R2R manufacturing technology over batch or sheet-to-sheet operations.

 

Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process Elements and Recent Advances is an ideal book for undergraduate and graduate students in various science and engineering disciplines, as well as for scientists, engineers, and technical and business leaders associated in any way with the development, commercialization, and manufacture of a variety of film products.

Preface xiii

1 Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: An Overview 1
Jehuda Greener

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 R2R Operation Overview 5

1.3 Process Economics 9

1.4 Environmental, Health, and Safety Considerations 13

1.5 Summary 15

References 15

2 Coating and Solidification 19
E. J. Lightfoot and E. D. Cohen

2.1 Coating Methods 19

2.1.1 Coating Fundamentals 20

2.1.1.1 Wetting 20

2.1.1.2 Coating Distribution 22

2.1.1.3 The Coating Window 22

2.1.2 Coating Hardware 24

2.1.2.1 Pre-metered Coating 24

2.1.2.2 Self-Metered Coating 27

2.1.3 Selecting a Coating Method 39

2.2 Drying and Curing 43

2.2.1 Principles 43

2.2.1.1 Choice of Solidification Method 43

2.2.1.2 Coupled Mass and Energy Transfer 44

2.2.1.3 Infrared Drying 48

2.2.1.4 UV Curing 48

2.2.1.5 E-Beam Curing 49

2.2.1.6 Dielectric Drying 49

2.2.1.7 The Drying Curve 50

2.2.2 Hardware 52

2.2.2.1 Conduction 52

2.2.2.2 Convection 52

2.2.2.3 IR Drying 56

2.3 Defect Management 58

2.3.1 Characterizing Defects 58

2.3.2 Defect Naming 58

2.3.3 Online Defect Characterization Systems 58

2.3.4 Defect Troubleshooting 59

2.3.4.1 Contamination 59

2.3.4.2 Substrate Deficiencies 59

2.3.4.3 Liquid Coating Quality 60

2.3.4.4 Unsuitable Coating Method 60

2.3.4.5 Inadequate Design of Coating Line Equipment 60

2.3.4.6 Deterioration of Coating Line Equipment 60

2.3.4.7 Drying-Induced Defects 60

2.3.4.8 Variations in Web Handling System 61

2.3.4.9 Inadequate Operating Procedures and Training 61

2.3.4.10 Key Variables Not Properly Controlled 61

References 61

3 Drying of Polymer Solutions: Modeling and Real-Time Tracking of the Process 65
S. Shams Es-haghi and Miko Cakmak

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Modeling of the Drying Process 67

3.3 Real- Time Tracking of the Drying Process of Polymer Solutions 80

3.3.1 Real-Time Measurement System 80

3.3.2 Drying Process of Polyimide/N,N-Dimethylformamide Solutions 84

3.3.3 Real-Time Study of Drying and Imidization of Polyamic Acid/NMP Solution 91

3.3.4 Development of Optical Gradient During Evaporation of Solvent 97

3.3.5 Effect of Organoclay and Graphene Oxide on the Drying Process of PAI/DMAc Solution 99

3.3.6 Real-Time Drying Study of Polyetherimide/NMP 102

3.4 Conclusions 104

References 106

4 In-Line Vacuum Deposition 111
C. A. Bishop

4.1 Introduction 111

4.2 Substrates 112

4.2.1 Polymer Substrates 113

4.2.2 Flexible Glass 114

4.2.3 Metal Foils 115

4.2.4 Fibers, Fabrics, Nonwovens, and Foams 115

4.2.5 Paper 116

4.3 Managing Defects 117

4.4 Managing

Heat Load 123

4.5 Vacuum Deposition Systems 124

4.5.1 Batch Systems 126

4.5.2 Air-to-Air Systems 127

4.6 Vacuum Deposition Processes 128

4.6.1 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) 128

4.6.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 130

4.6.3 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) 130

4.7 Vacuum-Deposited Coatings for Growth Markets 133

4.8 Conclusions 136

References 137

5 Web Handling and Winding 147
David R. Roisum, Gustavo Guzman, and S. Shams Es-haghi

5.1 Web Handling 147

5.2 Designfor Manufacturability (DFM) for Web Handling 149

5.3 Rollers 149

5.4 Tension Control 152

5.5 Nip Control 154

5.6 Temperature, Speed, and Gravity 155

5.7 Web Path Control, Guiding, and Oscillators 157

5.8 Slitting and Trim Removal 159

5.9 Winding 161

5.10 Wrinklings 167

References 169

6 Polymer Film Substrates for Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing: Process–Structure–Property Relationships 171
Baris Yalcin and Miko Cakmak

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Category II: Polyester Films 177

6.2.1 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) 180

6.2.2 Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) and Poly(etherimide) (PEI) Blend 190

6.2.3 Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN) 196

6.3 Category I: Solvent Cast High Tg Materials 206

6.3.1 Polyimides 207

6.4 Summary 210

6.4.1 Transparency 211

6.4.2 Thermal Properties 211

6.4.3 Barrier to Moisture and Gases and Planarization Requirements 214

References 219

7 Curl Effects in Roll-to-Roll Operations 225
Jehuda Greener

7.1 Introduction 225

7.2 Core-Set Curl 226

7.3 Physical Aging Effects 235

7.4 Core-Set Curl in R2R Operations 238

7.5 Other Curl Mechanisms and Curl Mitigation Strategies 247

References 249

8 Roll-to-Roll Processing of Glass 251
Doug Brackley, Dale Marshall, Gary Merz, and Eric Miller

8.1 Introduction 251

8.2 History of Rolled Glass at Corning 251

8.3 Key Attributes of Glass 252

8.4 Properties of Glass That Impact R2R Processing 254

8.5 Important Considerations for a Successful

R2R Glass Process 256

8.6 Summary 259

References 260

9 Novel Hybrid Composite Films by Roll-to-Roll Processing 261
Saurabh Batra, W. Zhao, Baris Yalcin, and Miko Cakmak

9.1 Introduction 261

9.2 Process Overview 262

9.3 Transparent Electrically Conductive Films 265

9.4 Bendable Aerogels (Xerogel) 271

9.5 Flexible Hydrogels 273

9.6 Conclusion 280

References 280

10 Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing of Flexible Displays 285
E. Montbach and D. Davis

10.1 Introduction: Thin and Flexible Substrates 285

10.1.1 Thinner Display Architectures 286

10.1.2 Challenges in Migrating to Roll-to-Roll 287

10.1.3 General Description of Roll-to-Roll Manufacture of Flexible Flat Panel Displays 292

10.1.3.1 Flexible Substrate 292

10.1.3.2 Application of Electrode 293

10.1.3.3 Electro-optic Layer 293

10.1.3.4 Cover Layer/Encapsulation 293

10.1.3.5 Singulation 293

10.1.3.6 Integration and Test 293

10.2 Roll-to-Roll Display Technologies 293

10.2.1 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Displays 294

10.2.1.1 Industrial Technology Research Institute of Taiwan 294

10.2.1.2 Kent Displays, Inc. 296

10.2.2 Active Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays 305

10.2.2.1 Background 305

10.2.2.2 Challenges in AMOLED Manufacturing 306

10.2.2.3 OLED Manufacturing Examples 309

10.2.3 Electrophoretic Displays 312

10.2.3.1 Function 312

10.2.3.2 Structure 313

10.2.3.3 Manufacturing 314

10.2.4 Microfluidic Displays 315

10.2.4.1 Function 315

10.2.4.2 Structure 316

10.2.4.3 Technology 316

10.3 Conclusions 318

References 319

11 Flexible Solar Cells 325
Y. Galagan

11.1 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technologies 325

11.2 R2R Processing 326

11.2.1 Substrates for R2R Processing 327

11.2.2 Solution-Based R2R Methods 329

11.3 Organic Photovoltaics 334

11.3.1 Technology Assessment 336

11.3.2 Roll-to-Roll Printing and Coating of Electrode Materials 339

11.3.3 Patterning and Module Manufacturing 341

11.3.4 Current Progress in R2R Manufacturing of Organic Photovoltaics 342

11.4 Perovskite Photovoltaics 347

11.4.1 Scalable Processing Techniques for Manufacturing Perovskite Solar Cells 350

11.4.2 Other Challenges in the Scale-Up of Perovskite Solar Cells 351

11.5 Conclusions 352

References 352

12 Field-Assisted Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Films: A Roll-to-Roll Approach 363
Saurabh Batra and Miko Cakmak

12.1 Introduction 363

12.2 Process Overview 364

12.3 Electric Field Alignment 365

12.3.1 Orienting Clay Particles in Electric Field 367

12.3.2 Orienting BaTiO3 Particles in Electric Field 371

12.4 Magnetic Field Alignment 379

12.5 Thermal Gradient 386

12.5.1 Directional Crystal Growth Using Thermal Gradient 387

12.5.2 Block Copolymer Oriented with Thermal Gradient 389

12.6 Conclusions 391

References 392

Index 397