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Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals: A Comprehensive Guide

Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals: A Comprehensive Guide

Stella J. Chapman

ISBN: 978-1-119-07790-9

Nov 2017, Wiley-Blackwell

312 pages

In Stock

$50.00

Description

Provides all you need to know about the safe and humane handling and restraint of animals.

Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals takes a holistic approach to the handling of a wide variety of animal species. This comprehensive resource offers a thorough overview of how to safely handle and restrain a number of commonly encountered species including dogs, cats, small mammals, exotic pets, horses and farm animals. Each chapter discusses the behaviour of the species and then outlines the appropriate handling and restraint methods, including any equipment required, multiple explanatory photographs, and useful further reading.

  • Covers a wide range of species commonly encountered by veterinary staff and those working within animal industries
  • Includes key points and self-assessment questions at the end of each chapter, and a glossary of terms
  • Ideal for students of any animal-related degree or diploma programme, including veterinary medicine, veterinary nursing, and animal studies and husbandry

Written for students and professionals who work with animals, Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals: A Comprehensive Guide encompasses all aspects of handling and physical restraint, including biosecurity and welfare issues. 

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Contributors xv

Acknowledgement xvii

1 Biosecurity and Personal Equipment for Safe Handling and Restraint of Animals 1
Stella J. Chapman

1.1 Transmission of Disease 1

1.1.1 Zoonoses 1

1.1.2 Carriers 3

1.2 Infection Control 3

1.2.1 Biosecurity 3

1.2.2 Effective Cleaning and Disinfection 3

1.3 Assessing the Risk 4

1.3.1 Standard Operating Procedures 5

1.4 Personal Hygiene 5

1.4.1 Handwashing 6

1.4.2 Signs 7

1.5 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 7

1.5.1 General Points 8

1.5.2 Working with Horses 9

Key Points 10

Self-assessment Questions 10

References 11

Further Reading 11

2 Welfare Considerations for the Handling and Restraint of Animals 13
Stella J. Chapman

2.1 The Human–Animal Bond: Domestication as a Consideration of Welfare 13

2.2 Welfare Considerations 14

2.2.1 The Five Needs/Freedoms and Reference to Animal Handling and Restraint 14

2.3 Types of Restraints and Implications for Welfare 15

2.3.1 Dogs 16

2.3.2 Horses 16

2.4 Stress and Implications for Handling and Restraint 17

2.4.1 Fear 17

2.4.2 Novel Events 17

2.4.3 Previous Experience 17

2.4.4 Selection for Behavioural Traits 18

2.4.5 The Importance of Training to Improve Handling and Animal Welfare 18

Key Points 18

Self-assessment Questions 19

References 19

3 Handling and Restraint of Dogs 21
Susan M. Phillips and Stella J. Chapman

3.1 Canine Behaviour 22

3.1.1 Genetic Influences on Behaviour (Nature) 22

3.1.2 Environmental Influences on Behaviour (Nurture) 23

3.1.3 Canine Communication 24

3.1.4 Canine Aggression 25

3.2 Handling and Restraint of Dogs 25

3.2.1 Approaching a Dog 28

3.2.2 Kennelling a Dog 29

3.2.3 Moving Around the Premises 29

3.2.4 Physical Restraint 29

3.2.5 Lifting 34

3.3 Ancillary Equipment 38

3.3.1 Collar and Lead 38

3.3.2 Slip Lead 38

3.3.3 Harness 40

3.3.4 Halters 40

3.3.5 Muzzles 40

3.3.6 Catchers 41

3.3.7 Stretchers, Trolleys and Blankets 42

3.4 Training for Restraint 42

3.5 Special Considerations 43

3.5.1 Handling and Restraint of Puppies 43

3.5.2 The Geriatric Dog 43

3.5.3 Dealing with an Uncooperative or Aggressive Dog 44

Key Points 44

Self-assessment Questions 44

References 45

Further Reading 46

4 Handling and Restraint of Cats 47
Susan M. Phillips and Stella J. Chapman

4.1 Feline Behaviour 48

4.1.1 Social Structure 48

4.1.2 Communication 48

4.1.3 Visual Communication 48

4.1.4 Olfactory Communication 51

4.1.5 Behaviour Responses 52

4.1.6 How this can Affect Handling 52

4.2 Handling and Restraint of Cats 52

4.2.1 Moving around the Premises 53

4.2.2 Removing Cats from Carriers and Cages 53

4.2.3 Placing Cats in Carriers and Cages 54

4.3 Physical Restraint 54

4.3.1 Lifting and Carrying Cats 54

4.3.2 Restraint in Standing Position 55

4.3.3 Restraint in Sitting Position 55

4.3.4 Restraint in Sternal Recumbency 56

4.3.5 Restraint in Lateral Recumbency 57

4.3.6 Restraint for Examination of the Head 57

4.3.7 Scruffing 57

4.4 Ancillary Equipment 57

4.4.1 Towels 58

4.4.2 Muzzles 59

4.4.3 Gloves and Gauntlets 59

4.4.4 Cat Bags 59

4.4.5 Nets 60

4.4.6 Cat Grabber/Snare 61

4.4.7 Crush Cages 61

4.5 Training for Restraint 61

4.6 Special Considerations 62

4.6.1 Handling and Restraint of Kittens: Socialization 62

4.6.2 Behavioural Changes Associated with Ageing 62

4.6.3 Dealing with an Aggressive of Uncooperative Cat 62

Key Points 63

Self-assessment Questions 64

References 64

Further Reading 65

5 Handling and Restraint of Rabbits 67
Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

5.1 Behaviour of Rabbits 68

5.1.1 Communication 68

5.2 Handling and Restraint of Rabbits 68

5.2.1 Basics 69

5.2.2 Approach and Capture of a Rabbit 69

5.2.3 Lifting a Rabbit into a Basket 71

5.2.4 Restraint of a Rabbit on a Table 73

5.2.5 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 75

5.2.6 Restraint for Aggressive Rabbits 76

5.2.7 Alternative Restraint Methods for Rabbits 77

5.2.8 Towel Wrap or ‘Bunny Burrito’ 77

5.2.9 Tonic Immobilization 78

5.3 Aggression 79

5.3.1 Aggression as a Normal Behaviour 80

5.3.2 Aggression as an Abnormal Behaviour 81

5.3.3 Preventing and Minimizing Aggressive Behaviour 81

Key Points 82

Self-assessment Questions 82

References 82

Further Reading 83

6 Handling and Restraint of Rodents 85
Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

6.1 General Species Information 85

6.1.1 Guinea Pigs 85

6.1.2 Rats 86

6.1.3 Mice 86

6.1.4 Hamsters 86

6.1.5 Gerbils 87

6.2 Behaviour of Rodents 87

6.2.1 Anatomical Considerations 87

6.2.2 Social Behaviour 87

6.2.3 Communication 88

6.3 Handling and Restraint of Small Rodents 88

6.3.1 General Guidelines 88

6.3.2 Points to Consider 90

6.3.3 Mice 90

6.3.4 Hamsters and Gerbils 90

6.4 Handling and Restraint of Rats 94

6.4.1 Approach 94

6.4.2 Capture 94

6.4.3 General Table Restraint 94

6.4.4 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 95

6.4.5 Additional Methods of Restraint 96

6.4.6 Aggression 97

6.5 Handling and Restraint of Guinea Pigs 98

6.5.1 Approach 98

6.5.2 Capture 99

6.5.3 General Table Restraint 100

6.5.4 Restraint for Sexing or Examination of the Abdomen 102

6.5.5 Carrying a Guinea Pig 102

6.5.6 Aggression in Guinea Pigs 102

Key Points 103

Self-assessment Questions 104

References 104

Further Reading 105

7 Handling and Restraint of Ferrets 107
Bridget Roberts and Stella J. Chapman

7.1 Behaviour of Ferrets 107

7.1.1 Communication 108

7.2 Handling and Restraint of Ferrets 108

7.2.1 General points 108

7.2.2 Approach 108

7.2.3 Capture 109

7.2.4 General Table Restraint 110

7.2.5 Restraint for Sexing and Examination of the Abdomen 110

7.2.6 Restraint of Aggressive Ferrets 110

7.2.7 Use of Harnesses 110

Key Points 111

Self-assessment Questions 112

References 112

Further Reading 113

8 Handling and Restraint of Horses and Donkeys 115
Stella J. Chapman and Krista M. McLennan

8.1 Equine Behaviour 116

8.1.1 Temperament 116

8.1.2 Communication 117

8.1.3 Key Differences Between Horses and Donkeys 119

8.1.3.1 In General 119

8.1.3.2 How Donkey Behaviour Can Affect Handling 119

8.1.3.3 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect when Handling Donkeys 120

8.2 How to Approach a Horse/Donkey 120

8.3 How to Put on a Head Collar and Lead in Hand 121

8.3.1 How to Put a Head Collar on a Horse in the Stable 121

8.3.2 How to Put a Head Collar on a Donkey in the Field 124

8.3.3 Quick Release Knot 124

8.3.4 How to Lead in Hand 127

8.4 Physical Restraint 130

8.5 Methods and Equipment 130

8.5.1 Head Collar 130

8.5.2 Bridle 131

8.5.3 Chiffney Bit 131

8.5.4 Twitch 131

8.5.5 Stocks 134

8.5.6 Tail Restraint 135

8.5.7 Physical Restraint of Donkeys 137

8.6 Training for Restraint 139

8.6.1 Training Donkeys for Restraint 141

8.7 Handling and Restraint of Foals 144

8.7.1 Development of Behaviour 144

8.7.2 Restraint of Foals 146

8.8 Handling and Restraint of Stallions 149

Key Points 149

Self-assessment Questions 149

References 150

Further Reading 151

9 Handling and Restraint of Cattle 153
Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

9.1 Behaviour 153

9.1.1 Dairy and Beef Cattle 153

9.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Good Effect When Handling 154

9.2.1 Cattle as a Prey Animal 154

9.2.2 Flight Zone and Point of Balance 155

9.2.3 Cattle as a Social Species 156

9.2.4 Previous Experience 156

9.2.5 Cattle Signals to Look For 157

9.3 How to Approach and Move Cattle 157

9.3.1 Approaching and Moving a Group of Cattle 158

9.3.2 Approaching and Moving the Individual 158

9.3.3 Moving a Calf 160

9.4 Handling Facilities 160

9.4.1 Special Note: Bulls and Calves; Use of Dogs and Vehicles 163

9.5 How to Restrain Cattle 166

9.5.1 Physical Restraint 166

9.5.2 Roping or Casting 173

9.6 Training for Restraint 176

9.7 Special Considerations 176

Key Points 177

Self-assessment Questions 177

References 177

Further Reading 178

10 Handling and Restraint of Small Ruminants 179
Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

10.1 Behaviour 180

10.1.1 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect when Handling 181

10.1.1.1 The Flocking Instinct 181

10.1.1.2 Follow the Leader 181

10.2 How to Approach and Move Sheep 182

10.2.1 Methods and Equipment 182

10.2.2 Approaching and Moving a Group of Sheep 182

10.2.3 Approaching and Moving an Individual Sheep 184

10.2.4 Handling Facilities 186

10.2.5 Special Note: Rams, Lambs and Pregnant Ewes; Use of Dogs/Vehicles 189

10.3 How to Approach and Move Goats 191

10.3.1 Methods and Equipment 191

10.3.2 Moving a Group 191

10.3.3 Moving an Individual 191

10.3.4 Handling Facilities 191

10.3.5 Special Note: Kids, Pregnant Does and Bucks 192

10.4 How to Restrain a Sheep 193

10.4.1 Methods and Equipment 193

10.4.2 Physical Restraint 193

10.4.3 Training for Restraint 198

10.5 How to Restrain Goats 200

10.5.1 Methods and Equipment 200

10.5.2 Physical Restraint 200

10.5.3 Training for Restraint 204

10.6 Special Considerations 204

Key Points 204

Self-assessment Questions 205

References 205

Further Reading 206

11 Handling and Restraint of Pigs 207
Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

11.1 Behaviour 207

11.1.1 How this Can Affect Handling 208

11.1.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect When Handling 208

11.2 How to Approach and Move Pigs 211

11.2.1 General Methods and Equipment 211

11.2.2 Moving a Group of Pigs 213

11.2.3 Moving the Individual 215

11.2.4 Sows, Boars, Finishers and Piglets 216

11.3 How to Restrain Pigs 217

11.3.1 Methods and Equipment 217

11.3.2 Physical Restraint 218

11.3.3 Training for Restraint 220

11.4 Special Considerations 221

Key Points 221

Self-assessment Questions 221

References 221

Further Reading 222

12 Handling and Restraint of South American Camelids 223
Krista M. McLennan and Stella J. Chapman

12.1 Behaviour 224

12.1.1 Alpacas and Llama 225

12.2 How to Use Behavioural Traits to Effect When Handling 225

12.2.1 Handling Facilities 227

12.3 How to Approach and Halter a Camelid 228

12.3.1 Approaching Adult Camelids 228

12.3.2 Approaching Cria 229

12.3.3 How to Put on a Head Collar/Halter 229

12.3.4 How to Lead a Camelid 230

12.4 How to Restrain a Camelid 231

12.4.1 Methods and Equipment 231

12.4.2 Physical Restraint 232

12.4.3 Training Adult Camelids for Restraint 234

12.5 Training Cria 235

12.6 Special Considerations 235

Key Points 236

Self-assessment Questions 236

References 236

Further Reading 237

13 Handling and Restraint of Poultry and Aviary Birds 239
William S.M. Justice and Stella J. Chapman

13.1 Behavioural Considerations 240

13.1.1 Flight Distance 240

13.1.2 Environment 240

13.2 Anatomical Considerations 240

13.3 How to Restrain Birds 242

13.3.1 Preparation Prior to Handling 242

13.3.2 Visual Assessment of Birds 242

13.4 Handling Techniques for Common Cage and Aviary Species 243

13.4.1 General Points Regarding the Handling of Poultry 243

13.4.2 Handling and Restraint of Chickens 243

13.4.3 Handling and Restraint of Other Poultry 246

13.4.4 Handling and Restraint of Pigeons and Doves 247

13.4.5 Handling and Restraint of Small Passerines 250

13.4.6 Handling and Restraint of Psittacines 251

Key Points 254

Self-assessment Questions 254

References 254

Further Reading 255

14 Handling and Restraint of Reptiles 257
William S.M. Justice and Stella J. Chapman

14.1 Behaviour and Special Considerations 258

14.1.1 Lizards 258

14.1.2 Snakes 258

14.1.3 Chelonians 259

14.2 Restraint and Handling of Snakes 259

14.2.1 Anatomical Considerations 259

14.2.2 Handling Snakes 260

14.2.2.1 Non-venomous Snakes 260

14.2.2.2 Venomous Snakes 262

14.3 Restraint and Handling of Lizards 264

14.3.1 Anatomical Considerations 264

14.3.2 Handling 264

14.4 Restraint and Handling of Chelonians 265

14.4.1 Anatomical Considerations 265

14.4.2 Handling 266

Key Points 267

Self-assessment Questions 268

References 269

Further Reading 269

Glossary 271

Answers to Chapter Questions 273

Index 285