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Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions

Seafloor Hydrothermal Systems: Physical, Chemical, Biological, and Geological Interactions

Susan E. Humphris (Editor), Robert A. Zierenberg (Editor), Lauren S. Mullineaux (Editor), Richard E. Thomson (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66399-8 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 466 Pages

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 91.

Hydrothennal circulation at mid-ocean ridges is one of the fundamental processes controlling the transfer of energy and matter from the interior of the Earth to the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Hydrothermal interactions influence the composition of the oceanic crust and the chemistry of the oceans. In addition, hydrothennal vent fields support diverse and unique biological communities by means of microbial populations that link the transfer of the chemical energy of dissolved chemical species to the production of organic carbon.
Traditionally, the physical, chemical, biological, and geological subsystems that constitute the hydrothennal circulation process have been studied in isolation. However, understanding the transfer and fluxes of mass and energy among these subsystems requires an integrated approach and the development of models that include interactions between them. We hope that this volume broadens the understanding of hydrothennal systems beyond individual specialties and stimulates multidisciplinary studies of the linkages among physical, chemical, biological and geological processes in mid-ocean ridge hydrothennal systems.

Susan E. Humphris, Robert A. Zierenberg, Lauren S. Mullineaux, and Richard E. Thomson xi

Distribution of Hydrothermal Activity and Its Associated Biological Community

Tectonic and Volcanic Controls on Hydrothermal Processes at the Mid-Ocean Ridge: An Overview
Based on Near-Bottom and Submersible Studies
Daniel J. Fornari and Robert W. Embley 1

Hydrothermal Plumes Over Spreading -Center Axes: Global Distributions and Geological Inferences
Edward T. Baker, Christopher R. German, and Henry Elderfield 47

The Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Community: An Overview
Robert R. Hessler and Victoria A. Kaharl 72

Interactions Affecting Hydrothermal Deposits
Subseafloor Processes in Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems
Jeffrey C. Alt 85

Physical and Chemical Processes of Seafloor Mineralization at Mid-Ocean Ridges
Mark D. Hannington, Ian R. Jonasson, Peter M. Herzig, and Sven Petersen 115

Modeling Chimney Growth and Associated Fluid Flow at Seafloor Hydrothermal Vent Sites
Margaret Kingston Tivey 158

Interaction of Vent Biota and Hydrothermal Deposits: Present Evidence and Future Experimentation
S. Kim Juniper and Joze Sarrazin 178

Stable Isotopes in Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Interactions Between Fluids, Minerals,
and Organisms
W. C. Shanks III, J. K. BOhlke, and R. R. Seal II 194

Interactions Within Hydrothermal Fluids
Controls on the Chemistry and Temporal Variability of Seafloor Hydrothermal Fluids
K. L. Von Damm 222

Phase Equilibria in Subseafloor Hydrothermal Systems: A Review of the Role of Redox,
Temperature, pH and Dissolved Cl on the Chemistry of Hot Spring Fluids at Mid-Ocean Ridges
W. E. Seyfried, Jr. and Kang Ding 248

Microbial Interactions With Hydrothermal Fluids
Holger W. Jannasch 273

Toward an Appreciation of Hydrothermal Vent Animals: Their Environment, Physiological
Ecology, and Tissue Stable Isotope Values
Charles R. Fisher 297

Interactions Within Hydrothermal Plumes

Hydrothermal Plumes: Near and Far Field
John E. Lupton 317

Oceanic Hydrothermal Circulation: Mesoscale and Basin-Scale Flow
Karl R. Helfrich and Kevin G. Speer 347

Physical Dynamics of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Plumes
Russell E. McDuff 357

Chemical and Biochemical Transformations in Hydrothermal Plumes
Marvin D. Lilley, Richard A. Feely, and John H. Trefry 369

Hydrothermal Activity and the Geochemistry of Metalliferous Sediment
Rachel A. Mills and Harry Elderfield 392

Dispersal Mechanisms of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fauna
Lauren S. Mullineaux and Scott C. France 408

Hydrothermal Fluxes
Heat Flow and Hydrothermal Circulation
Carol A. Stein, Seth Stein, and Aristeo Pelayo 425

The Magnitude and Global Implications of Hydrothermal Flux
David Kadko, John Baross, and Jeffrey Alt 446