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Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls

Seamounts, Islands, and Atolls

Barbara H. Keating (Editor), Patricia Fryer (Editor), Rodey Batiza (Editor), George W. Boehlert (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66420-9 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 405 Pages


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 43.

This collection of twenty-six papers arose partly from a special session at the Fall 1985 AGU meeting and reflects the growing research interest in the many diverse aspects of submarine and island volcanoes in the deep sea. Consequently, this book contains research and review articles dealing with a variety of topics including seamount abundances, morphology, geophysical characteristics, sedimentology, geochemistry and dating as well as physical oceanography and biology. We have attempted to select papers for disciplinary balance and also to provide a mixture of research articles and review papers. We dedicate this book to H. W. Menard whose lifelong fascination with seamounts, islands and atolls provided great impetus to their study.

Dedication to H. William Menard Marcia McNutt ix

Hotspots: The First 25 Years
Emile A. Okal and Rodey Batiza 1

Seamount Abundancesa nd Distribution Near the East Pacific Rise 00-240 N Based on Seabeam
Daniel J. Fornari, Rodey Batiza, and Mary Ann Luckman 13


The South Pacific Superswell
Marcia McNutt and Karen M. Fischer 25

Irregularly Shaped Seamounts Near the East Pacific Rise: Implications for Seamount Origin
and Rise Axis Processes
Daniel J. Fornari, Rodey Batiza, and James F. Allan 35

Structural Failure and Drowning of Johnstone Atoll, Central Pacific Basin
Barbara H. Keating 49

Origins of Nonvolcanic Seamounts in a Forearc Environment
Patricia Fryer and Gerard J. Fryer 61


A 3-D Gravity-Tectonic Study of Ita Mai Tai Guyot: An Uncompensated Seamount in the East
Mariana Basin
Bruce Wedgeworth and James Kellogg 73

Isostatic Compensation and Conduit Structures of Western Pacific Seamounts: Results of
Three-Dimensional Gravity Modeling
J. N. Kellogg, B. S. Wedgeworth, and J. Freymueller 85

Gravimetric Determination of Densities of Seamounts Along the Bonin Arc
Takemi Ishihara 97

Shipboard Confirmation of SEASAT Bathymetric Predictions in the South Central Pacific
Nicolas Baudry and Michel Diament 115

Temperature Beneath Midplate Swells: The Inverse Problem
Marcia McNutt 123

Paleomagnetic Constraints on the Origin and Evolution of the Musicians and South Hawaiian
Seamounts, Central Pacific Ocean
William W. Sager and Malcolm S. Pringle 133


Post-Eocene Subsidence of the Marshall Islands Recorded by Drowned Atolls on Harrie and
Sylvania Guyots S. O. Schlanger, J. F. Campbell, and M. W. Jackson 165

Petrology and Geochemistry of Neogene Sedimentary Rocks From Mariana Forearc Seamounts
J. A. Haggerry 175

Textural Characteristics of Sediments on Deep Seamounts in the Eastern Pacific Ocean
Between 100N and 300N
Lisa A. Levin and Charles A. Nittrouer 187


An Isotopic Survey of Pacific Ocean Plateaus: Implications for Their Nature and Origin
John J. Mahoney 207

Mineralogical Studies of Samoan Ultramafic Xenoliths: Implications for Upper Mantle Processes
Elizabeth Wright 221

Petrologic Evolution of the Louisville Seamount Chain
James W. Hawkins, Peter F. Lonsdale, and Rodey Batiza 235

Petrology and Chemistry of Lavas From Seamount Flanking the East Pacific Rise Axis 2, 10N:
Implications Concerning the Mantle Source Composition for Both Seamount and Adjacent  EPR
Lavas James F. Allan, Rodey Batiza, and Peter Lonsdale 255

Isotopic Evidence of a Hotspot Origin of the Louisville Seamount
Chain Q. Cheng, K.-H. Park, J. D. Macdougal, Al Zindler, G. W. Lugmair, H. Staudigel, J. Hawkins, and
P. Lonsdale 283

40Ar/39Ar Age, Petrology, and Tectonic Significance of Some Seamounts in the Gulf of Alaska
G. Brent Dalrymple, David A. Clague, Tracy L. Vallier, and H. William Menard 297


A Review of the Effects of Seamounts on Biological Processes
George W. Boehlert and Amatzia Genin 319

Effect of Seamounts and Seamount Chains on Ocean Circulation and Thermohaline Structure
Gunnar I. Roden 335

Seamount Biota and Biogeography
Raymond R. Wilson, Jr. and R onald S. Kaufmann 355

Seamount Benthic Ecology and Potential Environmental Impact from Manganese Crust
Mining in Hawaii 
Richard W. Grigg, A. Malahof,  E. H. Chave, and J. Landahl 379

Lithospheric Thinning Under the Atlantis-Meteor Seamount Complex (North Atlantic)
J. Verhoef and B. J. Collette 391