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Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass: Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers

Second Generation Biofuels and Biomass: Essential Guide for Investors, Scientists and Decision Makers

Roland A. Jansen

ISBN: 978-3-527-33290-8

Jan 2013

272 pages

In Stock

$104.00

Description

This guide to investing in the bioenergy market covers the topic from both a scientific, economic and political perspective. It describes the increasing number of second generation biodiesel projects which are now emerging in anticipation of growing sustainability concerns by governments, and in response to market demands for improved process efficiencies and greater feedstock production yields.

The book also closely examines the science and technology involved in second generation biofuels and gives concrete examples, such as in the aviation industry. The result is an essential guide for scientists, investors, politicians and decision-makers in the energy sector.
THE COMMODITY CASE - INTRODUCTION
Commodity Cycles - Past and Present
The Most Precious Commodity: Energy
Cheap and Expensive
Federal Reserve
Transformation to a Low-Carbon Society
Commodity Costs
The 'Per Capita' Factor
Demographics: India and China
Oil, and First- and Second-Generation Biofuels
Nuclear Energy
Eleven Megaforces
Resource Wars
Geopolitical Shift in Oil Production
Oil Companies, Production, and Transportation

FIRST- AND SECOND-GENERATION BIOFUELS
Second-Generation Requirements
Applications
First-Generation Feedstock: What Speaks against Biofuels of the First Generation?
Second-Generation Feedstock
Biomass
Bioethanol and Biodiesel Production
Biodiesel Refining
Benefits of Biodiesel
The Big Biofuel Inventors

BIOFUELS FEEDSTOCK: JATROPHA CURCAS
Characteristics
Jatropha Products
Advantages and Risks of Jatropha
Negative Aspects and Risks
Water Use
Invasiveness
Opinion of the UN FAO
Opinion of the World Bank
Code of Conduct
Summary of Jatropha
Where Does Jatropha Grow?
Genetic Improvement of J. Curcas

OTHER BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCKS
Pongamia pinatta
Algae
Palm Oil
Camelina
Crambe
Cheers!
Pennycress
Moringa
Castor
Halophytes
Sugarcane
Miscanthus
Grass to Ethanol: Napier Grass

CROPPING METHODS
Intercropping and Double Cropping
Reliance Life Sciences
Nestlé

SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTING
Principles
Practice: Jatropha curcas
Breaking the Cycle of Poverty
Food First
A Wider Context
Guatemala
Corporate Governance

SUSTAINABILITY

BIOMASS
What Is Biomass?
Five Basic Categories
Benefits of Biomass
Feedstock of Biomass
Biomass Potential in Brazil
Sustainability of Agripellets
Agripellets versus Coal and Lignite
Energy Density: Gigajoules per Tonne
Why Is Biomass in High Demand?
EU Environmental Regulations: Poland
The Challenges

CARBON CREDITS
Carbon is the Enemy
Jatropha Kerosene: A Monster Market Emerges
Carbon Reductions
Global Warming Around Us
Extreme Weather Patterns

BIOFUELS IN EUROPE - EU POLICIES
EU Policy in 2008
Heated Debates
National Policies
EU Rift in Biofuel Policy
Indirect Land-Use Change
Where Do We Stand Now?

BIOFUELS IN THE UNITED STATES
Biomass Demand in the United States
Second-Generation Biofuels for the United States
A Growing Shortage of Domestic Oil Production
Fuel Use at the USDA
Partnership with the FAA

BIOFUELS IN CHINA
Clean Energy - Go to China
China is Going Green
China's 12th 5-Year Plan
Inclusive Growth
The Beneficiaries
China's Energy Consumption
Staggering Car Sales Numbers
China's Diesel Pricing Mechanism
China -
United States Biofuel Pact
China's Biofuels Expansion

BIOFUELS IN BRAZIL
Introduction: Biofuel Industry Leader
Comparison with the United States
What is Driving the Urgency in Renewable Jet Fuel?
Biofuels from Sugarcane
Sugar Production
Ethanol Production and Flex-Fuel Cars
Bagasse, Bioelectricity, and Biofuels
Flex-Fuel = Biofuel
Fuel Consumption
Greenhouse Gas Reductions
Energy Balance
Sugarcane for Biofuels
Sugarcane Straw: A Growth Opportunity
Bioplastics
Biofuels and Public Health
Cautionary Notes
The Bottom Line

BIOFUELS AND BIOMASS IN AFRICA
Dependency on Fossil Fuels
Africa's Potential
Three African Examples

GENERAL AVIATION AND BIOFUELS
Important Aviation Facts
Carbon Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Biofuels - Providing Diversified Supply
Lifecycle of Carbon Dioxide
Green Aviation
Why Use Biokerosene?
Global Emissions of Carbon Dioxide
Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group

AVIATION AND CARBON CREDITS
Greenhouse Gases
EU Emission Trading Scheme
Cap and Trade
Carbon in Chains
Biokerosene Targets

BIOKEROSENE
Airline Industry Lifts Biofuel Development
Safety
Ready for Take-Off - A Monster Market in the Making: Aviation Biofuels
Refining
Benefits
Jet Fuel Standards
Certification of Biofuels
ASTM
Intensive Testing

FERMENTING FUELS
New Generation
What are Hydrocarbons?
What are Enzymes?
What are 'Drop-In Fuels'?
Converting Feedstock into Fuels
Cellulosic Ethanol
Biokerosene

AIRLINE TEST RESULTS WITH BIOFUELS
Air New Zealand
Qatar Airways
Japan Airlines Test Flight - Biofuels Tested: Jatropha, Camelina, and Algae
KLM - Biofuel Tested: Camelina
Continental Airlines
TAM
British Airways
The Milestone: Lufthansa's Daily Flights
Cathay Pacific
Air China
Alaska Airlines
Aeromexico: First Transatlantic Biofuel Flight

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
The Opportunity of a Lifetime
Eight Ways to Invest in Biofuels and Biomass
Investments Check-Up

JATROPHA PROJECTS, RESEARCH, AND JOINT VENTURES
Waterland
KUOSOL: Repsol and KUO
SG Biofuels and Bunge
Shell and Brazil's Cosan
JOil
Others

THE FUTURE
Conclusions
From Nuclear to Renewable Energies
The Future of Waste
Future of Jatropha Feedstock
Future of Sugarcane
Low-Carbon Economy
Zero-Waste Economy
Our World in 2030

GLOSSARY

INDEX

“The result is an essential guide for scientists, investors, politicians and decision-makers in the energy sector. The excellent index of the book puts it in light as a valuable and comprehensive resource of information, which might be an indispensable and powerful tool for both educational and practical reasons.”  (Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 1 April 2013)

“This book recognizes the wide variety of challenges faced by the biofuel industry. I found that the facts and perspectives presented provide ample material to discuss the potential role of biomass in our energy future.”  (Energy Technology, 1 April 2013)