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Security Risk Assessment and Management: A Professional Practice Guide for Protecting Buildings and Infrastructures

Security Risk Assessment and Management: A Professional Practice Guide for Protecting Buildings and Infrastructures

Betty E. Biringer, Rudolph V. Matalucci, Sharon L. O'Connor

ISBN: 978-0-470-16811-0 January 2007 384 Pages


Proven set of best practices for security risk assessment and management, explained in plain English

This guidebook sets forth a systematic, proven set of best practices for security risk assessment and management of buildings and their supporting infrastructures. These practices are all designed to optimize the security of workplace environments for occupants and to protect the interests of owners and other stakeholders. The methods set forth by the authors stem from their research at Sandia National Laboratories and their practical experience working with both government and private facilities.

Following the authors' step-by-step methodology for performing a complete risk assessment, you learn to:

  • Identify regional and site-specific threats that are likely and credible
  • Evaluate the consequences of these threats, including loss of life and property, economic impact, as well as damage to symbolic value and public confidence
  • Assess the effectiveness of physical and cyber security systems and determine site-specific vulnerabilities in the security system

The authors further provide you with the analytical tools needed to determine whether to accept a calculated estimate of risk or to reduce the estimated risk to a level that meets your particular security needs. You then learn to implement a risk-reduction program through proven methods to upgrade security to protect against a malicious act and/or mitigate the consequences of the act.

This comprehensive risk assessment and management approach has been used by various organizations, including the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bonneville Power Administration, and numerous private corporations, to assess and manage security risk at their national infrastructure facilities. With its plain-English presentation coupled with step-by-step procedures, flowcharts, worksheets, and checklists, you can easily implement the same proven approach and methods for your organization or clients. Additional forms and resources are available online at

Related Resources

1. Security Risk Assessment and Management Process.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Security Risk Equation.

1.3 Security Risk Assessment and Management Process.

1.3.1 Facility Characterization.

1.3.2 Threat Analysis.

1.3.3 Consequence Analysis.

1.3.4 System Effectiveness Assessment.

1.3.5 Risk Estimation.

1.3.6 Comparison of Estimated Risk Levels.

1.3.7 Risk Reduction Strategies.

1.4 Presentation to Management.

1.5 Risk Management Decisions.

1.6 Information Protection.

1.7 Process Summary.

1.8 References.

1.9 Exercises.

2. Screening Analysis.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Screening Analysis Methods.

2.3 Summary.

2.4 References.

2.5 Exercises.

3. Facility Characterization.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Undesired Events.

3.3 Facility Description.

3.3.1 Physical Details.

3.3.2 Cyber Information System.

3.3.3 Facility Operations.

3.3.4 Security Protection Systems.

3.3.5 Workforce Description.

3.3.6 Restrictions, Requirements, Limitations.

3.4 Critical Assets.

3.4.1 Generic Fault Tree.

3.4.2 Identifying Critical Assets.

3.5 Protection Objectives.

3.6 Summary.

3.7 References.

3.8 Exercises.

4. Threat Analysis.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Sources of Threat Information.

4.2.1 Local and State Sources.

4.2.2 National Sources.

4.3 Adversary Spectrum.

4.4 Adversary Capability.

4.5 Threat Potential for Attack.

4.5.1 Outsider Threat.

4.5.2 Insider Threat.

4.6 Summary.

4.7 References.

4.8 Exercises.

5. Consequence Analysis.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Reference Table of Consequences.

5.3 Consequence Values for Undesired Events.

5.4 Summary.

5.5 References.

5.6 Exercises.

6. Asset Prioritization.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Prioritization Matrix.

6.3 Summary.

6.4 References.

6.5 Exercises.

7. System Effectiveness.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Protection System Effectiveness.

7.2.1 Adversary Strategies.

7.2.2 Physical Protection System Effectiveness.

7.2.3 Cyber Protection System Effectiveness.

7.3 Summary.

7.4 References.

7.5 Exercises.

8. Estimating Security Risk.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Estimating Security Risk.

8.2.1 Conditional Risk.

8.2.2 Relative Risk.

8.3 Summary.

8.4 References.

8.5 Exercises.

9. Risk Reduction Strategies.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Strategies for Reducing Likelihood of Attack.

9.3 Strategies for Increasing Protection System Effectiveness.

9.3.1 Physical Protection System Upgrades.

9.3.2 Cyber Protection System Upgrades.

9.3.3 Protection System Upgrade Package(s).

9.4 Strategies for Mitigating Consequences.

9.4.1 Construction Hardening.

9.4.2 Redundancy.

9.4.3 Optimized Recovery Strategies.

9.4.4 Emergency Planning.

9.5 Combinations of Reduction Strategies.

9.6 Summary.

9.7 References.

9.8 Exercises.

10. Evaluating Impacts.

10.1 Risk Level.

10.2 Costs.

10.3 Operations/Schedules.

10.4 Public Opinion.

10.5 Other Site-Specific Concerns.

10.6 Review Threat Analysis.

10.7 Summary.

10.8 References.

10.9 Exercises.

11. Risk Management Decisions.

11.1 Introduction.

11.2 Risk Assessment Results.

11.2.1 Executive Summary.

11.2.2 Introduction.

11.2.3 Threat Analysis.

11.2.4 Consequence Analysis.

11.2.5 System Effectiveness Assessment.

11.2.6 Risk Estimation.

11.2.7 Risk Reduction Strategies and Packages.

11.2.8 Impact Analysis.

11.2.9 Supporting Documentation.

11.2.10 Report Overview.

11.3 Risk Management Decisions.

11.4 Establish Design Basis Threat (DBT).

11.5 Summary.

11.6 References.

11.7 Exercises.

12. Summary.

12.1 Facility Characterization.

12.2 Threat Analysis.

12.3 Consequence Analysis.

12.4 System Effectiveness Assessment.

12.5 Risk Estimation.

12.6 Comparison of Estimated Risk Level to Threshold.

12.7 Risk Reduction Strategies.

12.8 Analysis of Impacts Imposed by Risk Reduction Upgrade Packages.

12.9 Presentation to Management.

12.10 Risk Management Decisions.

"Used by government and private corporations, it sets forth a systematic, proven set of best practices for security risk assessment and management of both buildings and their supporting infrastructure." (; 11/7/07)