# Selective Glycosylations: Synthetic Methods and Catalysts

# Selective Glycosylations: Synthetic Methods and Catalysts

ISBN: 978-3-527-69624-6

Jan 2017

400 pages

$164.99

## Description

A comprehensive summary of novel approaches to the stereoselective construction of glycosidic linkages, covering modern glycosylation methods and their use and application in natural product synthesis and drug discovery.Clearly divided into five sections, the first describes recent advances in classical methodologies in carbohydrate chemistry, while the second goes on to deal with newer chemistries developed to control selectivity in glycosylation reactions. Section three is devoted to selective glycosylation reactions that rely on the use of catalytic promoters. Section four describes modern approaches for controlling regioselectivity in carbohydrate synthesis. The final section focuses on new developments in the construction of "unusual" sugars and is rounded off by a presentation of modern procedures for the construction of glycosylated natural products.

By providing the latest advances in glycosylation as well as information on mechanistic aspects of the reaction, this is an invaluable reference for both specialists and beginners in this booming interdisciplinary field that includes carbohydrate chemistry, organic synthesis, catalysis, and biochemistry.

Preface xiii

**1 Introduction: Classical Physics and the Physics of Information Technology 1**

1.1 The Perception of Matter in Classical Physics: Particles and Waves 1

1.2 Axioms of Classical Physics 2

1.3 Status and Effect of Classical Physics by the End of the Nineteenth Century 3

1.4 Physics Background of the High-Tech Era 6

1.5 Developments in Physics Reflected by the Development of Lighting Technology 7

1.5.1 The Light Bulb (Incandescent Lamp) 8

1.5.2 The Fluorescent (Discharge) Lamp 9

1.5.3 Light-Emitting and Laser Diodes 11

1.6 The Demand for Physics in Electrical Engineering and Informatics: Today and Tomorrow 11

Summary in Short 12

1.7 Questions and Exercises 13

**2 Blackbody Radiation: The Physics of the Light Bulb and of the Pyrometer 15**

2.1 Electromagnetic Radiation of Heated Bodies 15

2.2 Electromagnetic Field in Equilibrium with the Walls of a Metal Box 17

2.3 Determination of the Average Energy per Degree of Freedom. Planck’s Law 18

2.4 Practical Applications of Planck’s Law for the Blackbody Radiation 19

2.5 Significance of Planck’s Law for the Physics 21

Summary in Short 21

2.6 Questions and Exercises 22

**3 Photons: The Physics of Lasers 25**

3.1 The Photoelectric Effect 25

3.2 Practical Applications of the Photoelectric Effect (Photocell, Solar Cell, Chemical Analysis) 27

3.3 The Compton Effect 28

3.4 The Photon Hypothesis of Einstein 29

3.5 Planck’s Law and the Photons. Stimulated Emission 30

3.6 The Laser 31

Summary in Short 33

3.7 Questions and Exercises 34

**4 Electrons: The Physics of the Discharge Lamps 37**

4.1 Fluorescent Lamp 37

4.2 Franck–Hertz Experiment 38

4.3 Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom: Energy Quantization 40

4.4 Practical Consequences of the Energy Quantization for Discharge Lamps 42

4.5 The de Broglie Hypothesis 45

4.6 The Davisson–Germer Experiment 46

4.7 Wave–Particle Dualism of the Electron 47

Summary in Short 48

4.8 Questions and Exercises 48

**5 The Particle Concept of Quantum Mechanics 51**

5.1 Particles and Waves in Classical Physics 51

5.2 Double-Slit Experiment with a Single Electron 53

5.3 The Born–Jordan Interpretation of the Electron Wave 55

5.4 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 55

5.5 Particle Concept of Quantum Mechanics 56

5.6 The Scale Dependence of Physics 57

5.7 Toward a New Physics 58

5.8 The Significance of Electron Waves for Electrical Engineering 59

5.9 Displaying Electron Waves 60

Summary in Short 61

5.10 Questions and Exercises 61

Reference 61

**6 Measurement in Quantum Mechanics. Postulates 1–3 63**

6.1 Physical Restrictions for the Wave Function of an Electron Postulate 1 64

6.2 Mathematical Definitions and Laws Related to the Wave Function 65

6.3 Mathematical Representation of the Measurement by Operators 66

Postulate 2 67

6.4 Mathematical Definitions and Laws Related to Operators 67

6.5 Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 68

Postulate 3 69

Summary in Short 72

6.6 Questions and Exercises 72

**7 Observables in Quantum Mechanics. Postulates 4 and 5. The Relation of Classical and Quantum Mechanics 75**

7.1 The Canonical Commutation Relations of Heisenberg 75

Postulate 4 76

7.2 The Choice of Operators by Schrodinger ̈ 76

7.3 Vector Operator of the Angular Momentum 77

7.4 Energy Operators and the Schrodinger Equation ̈ 78

Postulate 5 79

7.5 Time Evolution of Observables 79

7.6 The Ehrenfest Theorem 81

Summary in Short 82

7.7 Questions and Exercises 82

**8 Quantum Mechanical States 85**

8.1 Eigenstates of Position 85

8.2 Eigenstates of Momentum 87

8.3 Eigenstates of Energy – Stationary States 88

8.4 Free Motion 90

8.5 Bound States 92

Summary in Short 94

8.6 Questions and Exercises 94

**9 The Quantum Well: the Basis of Modern Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 97**

9.1 Quantum-Well LEDs 97

9.2 Energy Eigenvalues in a Finite Quantum Well 99

9.3 Applications in LEDs and in Detectors 103

9.4 Stationary States in a Finite Quantum Well 103

9.5 The Infinite Quantum Well 104

9.6 Comparison to a Classical Particle in a Box 106

Summary in Short 107

9.7 Questions and Exercises 107

**10 The Tunnel Effect and Its Role in Electronics 109**

10.1 The Scanning Tunneling Microscope 109

10.2 Electron at a Potential Barrier 110

10.3 Field Emission, Leakage Currents, Electrical Breakdown, Flash Memories 113

10.4 Resonant Tunneling, Quantum Field Effect Transistor, Quantum-Cascade Lasers 117

10.4.1 Mathematical Demonstration of Resonant Tunneling 119

Summary in Short 121

10.5 Questions and Exercises 122

**11 The Hydrogen Atom. Quantum Numbers. Electron Spin 125**

11.1 Eigenstates of Lz 126

11.2 Eigenstates of L2 126

11.3 Energy Eigenstates of an Electron in the Hydrogen Atom 129

11.4 Angular Momentum of the Electrons. The Spin 134

Summary in Short 135

11.5 Questions and Exercises 136

**12 Quantum Mechanics of Many-Body Systems (Postulates 6 and 7). The Chemical Properties of Atoms. Quantum Information Processing 139**

12.1 The Wave Function of a System of Identical Particles 139

Postulate 6 140

12.2 The Pauli Principle 140

Postulate 7 140

12.3 Independent Electron Approximation (One-Electron Approximation) 142

12.4 Atoms with Several Electrons 145

12.5 The Chemical Properties of Atoms 145

12.6 The Periodic System of Elements 147

12.7 Significance of the Superposition States for the Future of Electronics and Informatics 148

Summary in Short 151

12.8 Questions and Exercises 151

References 152

**A Important Formulas of Classical Physics 153**

A.1 Basic Concepts 153

A.1.1 The Point Mass 153

A.1.2 Frame of Reference 153

A.1.3 The Path 153

A.1.4 Kinematics 153

A.2 Newton’s Axioms 154

A.3 Conservation Laws 155

A.4 Examples 156

A.4.1 Electrons in a Homogenous Electric Field 156

A.4.2 Harmonic Oscillators 156

A.5 Waves in an Elastic Medium 157

A.6 Wave Optics 159

A.6.1 Diffraction by a Double Slit 159

A.6.2 X-Ray Diffraction by a Crystal Lattice 160

A.7 Equilibrium Energy Distribution among Many Particles 160

A.8 Complementary Variables 162

A.9 Special Relativity Theory 162

**B Important Mathematical Formulas 165**

B.1 Numbers 165

B.2 Calculus 166

B.3 Operators 167

B.4 Differential Equations 168

B.5 Vectors and Matrices 169

**C List of Abbreviations 171**

Solutions 177

List of Figures 189

Index 197