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Separation Process Principles with Applications Using Process Simulators, 4th Edition

Separation Process Principles with Applications Using Process Simulators, 4th Edition

J. D. Seader, Ernest J. Henley, D. Keith Roper

ISBN: 978-1-119-23959-8

Jan 2016

554 pages

In Stock

$139.95

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Separation Process Principles with Applications Using Process Simulator, 4th Edition
 is the most comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the major separation operations in the chemical industry. The 4th edition focuses on using process simulators to design separation processes and prepares readers for professional practice. Completely rewritten to enhance clarity, this fourth edition provides engineers with a strong understanding of the field. With the help of an additional co-author, the text presents new information on bioseparations throughout the chapters. A new chapter on mechanical separations covers settling, filtration and centrifugation including mechanical separations in biotechnology and cell lysis. Boxes help highlight fundamental equations. Numerous new examples and exercises are integrated throughout as well.

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About the Authors iii

Preface to the Fourth Edition v

General Nomenclature xiii

Dimensions and Units xvii

1. Separation Processes 1

1.0∗ Instructional Objectives 1

1.1∗ Industrial Chemical Processes 1

1.2∗ Basic Separation Techniques 3

1.3⚬ Separations by Phase Creation 4

1.4⚬ Separations by Phase Addition 6

1.5⚬ Separations by Barrier 7

1.6⚬ Separations by an External Field or Gradient 7

1.7∗ Brief Comparison of Common Separation Operations 8

1.8∗ Separation Processes, Product Purity, Component Recovery, and Separation Sequences 9

Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

2. Thermodynamics of Separation Operations 16

2.0∗ Instructional Objectives 16

2.1∗ Phase Equilibria 16

2.2∗ Ideal-Gas, Ideal-Liquid-Solution Model 20

2.3⚬ Graphical Representation of Thermodynamic Properties 21

2.4⚬ Nonideal Thermodynamic Property Models 23

2.5⚬ P-v-T Equation-of-State (EOS) Models 23

2.6⚬ Highly Nonideal Liquid Solutions 27

2.7⚬ Gibbs Excess Free-Energy (gE) Models 29

2.8⚬ Predictive Models 34

2.9⚬ Electrolyte Solution Models 36

2.10⚬ Polymer Solution Models 36

2.11∗ K-Value Methods in Process Simulators 36

2.12∗ Exergy and Second-Law Analysis 37

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

3. Mass Transfer and Diffusion 46

3.0∗ Instructional Objectives 46

3.1∗ Steady-State, Ordinary Molecular Diffusion 47

3.2∗ Diffusion Coefficients (Diffusivities) 51

3.3∗ Steady-State and Unsteady-State Mass Transfer Through Stationary Media 58

3.4∗ Mass Transfer in Laminar Flow 60

3.5∗ Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow 68

3.6∗ Models for Mass Transfer in Fluids with a Fluid–Fluid Interface 73

3.7∗ Two-Film Theory and Overall Mass-Transfer Coefficients 76

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

4. Single Equilibrium Stages and Flash Calculations 87

4.0∗ Instructional Objectives 87

4.1∗ Gibbs’ Phase Rule and Degrees of Freedom 88

4.2∗ Binary Vapor–Liquid Systems at Equilibrium 89

4.3∗ Equilibrium Two-Phase Flash Calculations 93

4.4∗ Ternary Liquid–Liquid Systems at Equilibrium 97

4.5⚬ Multicomponent Liquid–Liquid Systems 101

4.6∗ Liquid–Solid Systems 102

4.7∗ Gas–Liquid Systems 104

4.8∗ Gas–Solid Systems 105

4.9⦁ Three-Phase Equilibrium Systems 107

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

5. Multistage Cascades and Hybrid Systems 118

5.0∗ Instructional Objectives 118

5.1∗ Cascade Configurations 118

5.2∗ Single-Section Liquid–Liquid Extraction Cascades 119

5.3∗ Two-Section Distillation Cascades 121

5.4⚬ Membrane Cascades 123

5.5⚬ Hybrid Systems 125

5.6∗ Degrees of Freedom and Specifications for Cascades 125

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

6. Absorption and Stripping 137

6.0∗ Instructional Objectives 137

6.1⚬ Equipment for Vapor–Liquid Separations 138

6.2⚬ General Design Considerations 143

6.3∗ Graphical Method for Trayed Towers 144

6.4∗ Kremser Group Method for Multicomponent Absorption and Stripping 148

6.5∗ Stage Efficiency and Column Height for Trayed Columns 154

6.6∗ Flooding, Column Diameter, and Tray Layout for Trayed Columns 161

6.7∗ Rate-Based Method for Packed Columns 164

6.8∗ Packed-Column Liquid Holdup, Diameter, Flooding, Pressure Drop, and Mass-Transfer Efficiency 169

6.9⦁ Reactive (Chemical) Absorption 180

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

7. Distillation of Binary Mixtures 191

7.0∗ Instructional Objectives 191

7.1⚬ Equipment and Design Considerations 193

7.2∗ McCabe–Thiele Graphical Method for Trayed Towers 193

7.3⚬ Extensions of the McCabe–Thiele Method 203

7.4∗ Estimation of Tray Efficiency for Distillation 208

7.5∗ Column and Reflux-Drum Diameters 215

7.6∗ Rate-Based Method for Packed Distillation Columns 216

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

8. Liquid–Liquid Extraction with Ternary Systems 231

8.0∗ Instructional Objectives 231

8.1⚬ Equipment for Solvent Extraction 233

8.2⚬ General Design Considerations 239

8.3∗ Hunter–Nash Graphical Equilibrium-Stage Method 243

8.4⚬ Theory and Scale-Up of Extractor Performance 252

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

9. Approximate Methods for Multicomponent Distillation 267

9.0∗ Instructional Objectives 267

9.1∗ Fenske–Underwood–Gilliland (FUG) Method 267

9.2∗ Using the Shortcut (FUG) Method with Process Simulators 279

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

10. Equilibrium-Based Methods for Multicomponent Absorption, Stripping, Distillation, and Extraction 284

10.0∗ Instructional Objectives 284

10.1∗ Simple Model for a Vapor–Liquid Equilibrium Stage 284

10.2⦁ Evolution of Methods for Solving the Mesh Equations 286

10.3∗ Strategies for Applying Process-Simulator Methods 287

10.4∗ Main Mathematical Procedures 291

10.5∗ Bubble-Point (BP) and Sum-Rates (SR) Methods 294

10.6∗ Simultaneous-Correction Method 297

10.7∗ Inside-Out Method 304

10.8⦁ Rigorous Methods for Liquid–Liquid Extraction 309

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

11. Enhanced Distillation and Supercritical Extraction 320

11.0∗ Instructional Objectives 320

11.1∗ Use of Triangular Graphs 321

11.2∗ Extractive Distillation 332

11.3⦁ Salt Distillation 335

11.4⦁ Pressure-Swing Distillation 337

11.5⦁ Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation 339

11.6∗ Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation 343

11.7⦁ Reactive Distillation 352

11.8⦁ Supercritical-Fluid Extraction 357

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

12. Rate-Based Models for Vapor–Liquid Separation Operations 368

12.0⦁ Instructional Objectives 368

12.1⦁ Rate-Based Model 370

12.2⦁ Thermodynamic Properties and Transport-Rate Expressions 372

12.3⦁ Methods for Estimating Transport Coefficients and Interfacial Area 375

12.4⦁ Vapor and Liquid Flow Patterns 375

12.5⦁ Method of Calculation 376

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

13. Batch Distillation 385

13.0∗ Instructional Objectives 385

13.1∗ Differential Distillation 385

13.2∗ Binary Batch Rectification 388

13.3⦁ Batch Stripping and Complex Batch Distillation 390

13.4⦁ Effect of Liquid Holdup 391

13.5∗ Stage-by-Stage Methods for Batch Rectification 391

13.6∗ Intermediate-Cut Strategy 400

13.7⦁ Optimal Control by Variation of Reflux Ratio 401

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises ∗Suitable for an UG course ⚬Optional ⦁Advanced

14. Membrane Separations 408

14.0∗ Instructional Objectives 408

14.1⚬ Membrane Materials 410

14.2⚬ Membrane Modules 414

14.3∗ Mass Transfer in Membranes 416

14.4∗ Dialysis 430

14.5⚬ Electrodialysis 432

14.6∗ Reverse Osmosis 434

14.7∗ Gas Permeation 438

14.8⚬ Pervaporation 441

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

15. Adsorption, Ion Exchange, and Chromatography 451

15.0∗ Instructional Objectives 451

15.1∗ Sorbents 453

15.2∗ Equilibrium Considerations 461

15.3∗ Kinetic and Transport Rate Considerations 470

15.4⚬ Equipment for Sorption Operations 475

15.5∗ Slurry and Fixed-Bed Adsorption Systems 479

15.6∗ Continuous, Countercurrent Adsorption Systems 494

15.7⚬ Ion-Exchange Cycle 502

15.8∗ Chromatographic Separations 503

Nomenclature, Summary, References, Study Questions, Exercises

Answers to Selected Exercises 519

Index 521

• New Focus on process simulations using Aspen Plus, CHEMCAD, and ChemSep to design separation operations.

• New Chapters 1, 2, 4-13 have been revised.

• New and revised examples and exercises.

• The fourth edition provides comparisons of features of process simulators as well as examples of how they are used to solve industrial-level design problems.

• When the authors introduce a new separation technology, they provide a flow sheet and description of an industrial process to demonstrate how to the technology is used to create saleable products.

• Examples, homework exercises, and end of chapter questions throughout the text reinforce the use of process simulators.