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Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment

Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment

Sandra E. Shumway (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-96094-3

Aug 2011, Wiley-Blackwell

424 pages



Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment focuses primarily on the issues surrounding environmental sustainability of shellfish aquaculture. The chapters in this book provide readers with the most current data available on topics such as resource enhancement and habitat restoration. Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is also an invaluable resource for those looking to develop and implement environmental best management practices. Edited one of the world's leading shellfish researchers and with contributions from around the world, Shellfish Aquaculture and the Environment is the definitive source of information for this increasingly important topic.

View the Executive Summary here:

List of Contributors xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xv

1 The role of shellfish farms in provision of ecosystem goods and services 3
João G. Ferreira, Anthony J.S. Hawkins, and Suzanne B. Bricker

Introduction 3

Methods of study 6

Ecosystem goods: biomass production 13

Ecosystem services: environmental quality 17

Literature cited 26

2 Shellfish aquaculture and the environment: an industry perspective 33
William Dewey, Jonathan P. Davis, and Daniel C. Cheney

Introduction 33

Shellfish farmers and harvesters history of water quality

protection and stewardship roles 35

BMPs, the shellfish industry, and the role of available research 42

Conclusion 48

Literature cited 48

3 Molluscan shellfish aquaculture and best management practices 51
John A. Hargreaves

Introduction 51

Ecosystem change and shellfish aquaculture 53

Classifi cation of impacts 53

BMPs 54

Assurance labeling 64

Pressures to participate in certifi cation programs 65

Perspectives on ecolabeling 67

Aquaculture certifi cation programs 68

Critique of bivalve shellfish ecolabeling efforts in the

United States 70

Criticisms of certifi cation programs 73

Towards more meaningful labeling 75

Concluding remarks 77

Literature cited 78

4 Bivalve filter feeding: variability and limits of the aquaculture biofilter 81
Peter J. Cranford, J. Evan Ward, and Sandra E. Shumway

Introduction 81

Constraints on maximum feeding activity 82

Shellfi sh feeding in nature 85

Emerging knowledge on ecosystem interactions with the bivalve biofilter 109

Conclusions 111

Literature cited 113

5 Trophic interactions between phytoplankton and bivalve aquaculture 125
Gary H. Wikfors

The interdependence of bivalves and phytoplankton 125

Bivalve population density: farmed bivalves are naturally gregarious 127

Bivalves as consumers and cultivators of phytoplankton 127

Summary and prospects 130

Acknowledgments 131

Literature cited 131

6 The application of dynamic modeling to prediction of production carrying capacity in shellfi sh farming 135
Jon Grant and Ramón Filgueira

Physical oceanographic models 139

Filtration and seston depletion 140

Single-box models 140

Higher-order models 142

Fully spatial models 143

Population-based models 145

Local models 146

Optimization 147

Application to management 148

Modeling environmental impact 149

Sustainability and ecosystem-based management 150

Literature cited 151

7 Bivalve shellfi sh aquaculture and eutrophication 155
JoAnn M. Burkholder and Sandra E. Shumway

Summary 155

Introduction 156

Most commonly reported: localized changes associated with shellfi sh aquaculture 158

Interpretations from an ecosystem approach 179

Modeling efforts to assess relationships between bivalve aquaculture and eutrophication 187

Eutrophication of coastal waters from land-based nutrients 192

Ecological and economic benefit of bivalve aquaculture in combating eutrophication 195

Conclusions 200

Literature cited 201

8 Mussel farming as a tool for re-eutrophication of coastal waters: experiences from Sweden 217
Odd Lindahl

Introduction 217

Mussel farming: open landscape feeding in the sea 217

Estimating the environmental value of mussel farming 219

Trading nutrient discharges 222

Agricultural environmental aid program and mussel farming 224

Added ecosystem services through mussel farming 226

The city of lysekil, the first buyer of a nutrient emission quota 226

Swedish mussel farming and its markets 227

Mussel meal instead of fish meal in organic feeds 229

Mussel meal in feeds for organic poultry 230

The use of the mussel remainder as fertilizer and biogas production 232

Risk assessment of mussels for seafood, feed, and fertilizer 233

Conclusions of the Swedish experience 234

Literature cited 235

9 Expanding shellfi sh aquaculture: a review of the ecological services provided by and impacts of native and cultured bivalves in shellfi sh-dominated ecosystems 239
Loren D. Coen, Brett R. Dumbauld, and Michael L. Judge

Introduction 239

Aquaculture-based systems 249

Remaining questions 272

Literature cited 274

10 Bivalves as bioturbators and bioirrigators 297
Joanna Norkko and Sandra E. Shumway

Bivalves are key species in soft-sediment habitats 297

What are bioturbation and bioirrigation? 298

How do healthy soft-sediment bivalve populations affect their surroundings? 303

Summary 311

Literature cited 312

11 Environmental impacts related to mechanical harvest of cultured shellfi sh 319
Kevin D.E. Stokesbury, Edward P. Baker, Bradley P. Harris, and Robert B. Rheault

Introduction 319

Literature review 320

Experimental design 329

Conclusions 334

Acknowledgments 335

Literature cited 335

12 Genetics of shellfish on a human-dominated planet 339
Dennis Hedgecock

Introduction 339

Domestication of shellfish 341

Conservation 347

Conclusions 352

Literature cited 352

13 Shellfi sh diseases and health management 359
Ralph A. Elston and Susan E. Ford

Shellfish health management and infectious disease prevention 359

Interactions of bivalve shellfish and parasites with the natural environment 360

Interactions of hosts and disease agents within the aquaculture environment 367

Solutions: 1. Shellfish aquaculture development and health management 370

Solutions: 2. Implementing health management for shellfish aquaculture 377

Summary 385

Literature cited 386

14 Marine invaders and bivalve aquaculture: sources, impacts, and consequences 395
Dianna K. Padilla, Michael J. McCann, and Sandra E. Shumway

Introduction 395

Introduced shellfish from aquaculture 397

Species moved with aquaculture 406

Introduced species that impact aquaculture 407

Recommendations for minimizing spread and impacts of introductions 412

Future needs 415

Acknowledgments 415

Literature cited 416

15 Balancing economic development and conservation of living marine resources and habitats: the role of resource managers 425
Tessa L. Getchis and Cori M. Rose

Introduction 425

Regulatory framework for shellfi sh aquaculture in the United States 429

Environmental best management practices (BMPs) 440

Environmental marketing and other incentive programs 440

Conclusions 442

Literature cited 443

16 Education 447
Donald Webster

Skills 447

Aquaculture-related disciplines 449

K-12 education 451

Undergraduate degree programs 452

Graduate degree programs 453

4-H and youth programs 454

Extension programs 455

Technology transfer 457

Conclusion 458

Literature cited 459

17 The implications of global climate change for molluscan aquaculture 461
Edward H. Allison, Marie-Caroline Badjeck, and Kathrin Meinhold

Introduction 461

Climate change in the oceans and coastal zones 462

The effects of climate change on shellfish aquaculture systems 467

Adapting shellfish farming to climate change impacts 478

Shellfish aquaculture and climate change mitigation 482

Conclusion 484

Acknowledgments 485

Literature cited 485

Index 491

""While it may be intended for policy makers, and we would all support her in this aim, it will clearly be an essential addition to university libraries, a must-have for shellfish researchers and there could also be good reason for shellfish farmers to think about getting hold of a copy, since it is one way to feel extremely positive about what you do - and supported by real hard science information!."" (The Grower, 2011)