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Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis: A Guide to Successful Synthesis Design

Side Reactions in Organic Synthesis: A Guide to Successful Synthesis Design

Florencio Zaragoza Dörwald

ISBN: 978-3-527-60498-2

Mar 2006

389 pages

$157.99

Description

Most syntheses in the chemical research laboratory fail and usually require several attempts before proceeding satisfactorily. Failed syntheses are not only discouraging and frustrating, but also cost a lot of time and money. Many failures may, however, be avoided by understanding the structure-reactivity relationship of organic compounds.
This textbook highlights the competing processes and limitations of the most important reactions used in organic synthesis. By allowing chemists to quickly recognize potential problems this book will help to improve their efficiency and success-rate. A must for every graduate student but also for every chemist in industry and academia.

Contents:

1 Organic Synthesis: General Remarks
2 Stereoelectronic Effects and Reactivity
3 The Stability of Organic Compounds
4 Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitutions: Problematic Electrophiles
5 The Alkylation of Carbanions
6 The Alkylation of Heteroatoms
7 The Acylation of Heteroatoms
8 Palladium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation
9 Cyclizations
10 Monofunctionalization of Symmetric Difunctional Substrates
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: GENERAL REMARKS
Introduction
Synthesis Design
Hard and Soft Acids and Bases
The Curtin-Hammett Principle
STEREOELECTRONIC EFFECTS AND REACTIVITY
Hyperconjugation with sigma Bonds
Hyperconjugation with Lone Electron Pairs
Hyperconjugation and Reactivity
Conclusion
THE STABILITY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
Introduction
Strained Bonds
Incompatible Functional Groups
Conjugation and Hyperconjugation of Incompatible Functional Groups
Stability towards Oxygen
Detonations
ALIPHATIC NUCLEOPHILIC SUBSTITUTIONS: PROBLEMATIC ELECTROPHILES
Mechanisms of Nucleophilic Substitution
Structure of the Leaving Group
Structure of the Electrophile
THE ALKYLATION OF CARBANIONS
Introduction
The Kinetics of Deprotonations
Regioselectivity of Deprotonations and Alkylations
The Stability of Carbanions
THE ALKYLATION OF HETEROATOMS
Alkylation of Fluoride
Alkylation of Aliphatic Amines
Alkylation of Anilines
Alkylation of Alcohols
Alkylation of Phenols
Alkylation of Amides
Alkylation of Carbamates and Ureas
Alkylation of Amidines and Guanidines
Alkylation of Carboxylates
THE ACYLATION OF HETEROATOMS
Problematic Carboxylic Acids
Problematic Amines
Problematic Alcohols
PALLADIUM-CATALYZED C-C BOND FORMATION
Introduction
Chemical Properties of Organopalladium Compounds
Mechanisms of Pd-Catalyzed C--C Bond Formation
Homocoupling and Reduction of the Organyl Halide
Homocoupling and Oxidation of the Carbon Nucleophile
Transfer of Aryl Groups from the Phosphine Ligand
Ipso- vs Cine-Substitution at Vinylboron and -tin Derivatives
Allylic Arylation and Hydrogenation as Side Reactions of the Heck Reaction
Protodemetalation of the Carbon Nucleophile
Sterically Hindered Substrates
Cyclometalation
Chelate Formation
CYCLIZATION
Introduction
Baldwin's Cyclization Rules
Structural Features of the Chain
Ring Size
Heterocycles
MONOFUNCTIONALIZATION OF SYMMETRIC DIFUNCTIONAL SUBSTRATES
Introduction
Monofunctionalization of Dicarboxylic Acids
Monofunctionalization of Diols
Monofunctionalization of Diamines
Monoalkylation of C,H-Acidic Compounds
Monoderivatization of Dihalides


"...I enjoyed reading this book and will refer to it often to help understand problem reactions. Highly recommended..."
Organic Process Research & Development


"The text in this book is clear, and the diagrams are well presented. There are lots of references, with titles making it easier for the reader to access the value of a reference before they go to find it. The author has worked hard on this book and made a brave effort. Overall, though, it is one for research libraries, but does not merit a personal investment, in my opinion."
Journal of the American Chemical Society


"The book should be required reading for all who believe that making molecules is an easy task. If, after reading it, they still consider that our organic synthesis is a worked-out branch of science, they must go to the laboratory and try to do it themselves."
Miguel A. Sierra, Universidad Complutense, Madrid
Angewandte Chemie 2005-117/29 + International Edition 2005-44/29