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Sigma-Delta Converters: Practical Design Guide, 2nd Edition

Sigma-Delta Converters: Practical Design Guide, 2nd Edition

Jose M. de la Rosa

ISBN: 978-1-119-27578-7

Oct 2018, Wiley-IEEE Press

500 pages

Description

Thoroughly revised and expanded to help readers systematically increase their knowledge and insight about Sigma-Delta Modulators

Sigma-Delta Modulators (SDMs) have become one of the best choices for the implementation of analog/digital interfaces of electronic systems integrated in CMOS technologies. Compared to other kinds of Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), Σ∆Ms cover one of the widest conversion regions of the resolution-versus-bandwidth plane, being the most efficient solution to digitize signals in an increasingly number of applications, which span from high-resolution low-bandwidth digital audio, sensor interfaces, and instrumentation, to ultra-low power biomedical systems and medium-resolution broadband wireless communications.

Following the spirit of its first edition, Sigma-Delta Converters: Practical Design Guide, 2nd Edition takes a comprehensive look at SDMs, their diverse types of architectures, circuit techniques, analysis synthesis methods, and CAD tools, as well as their practical design considerations. It compiles and updates the current research reported on the topic, and explains the multiple trade-offs involved in the whole design flow of Sigma-Delta Modulators—from specifications to chip implementation and characterization. The book follows a top-down approach in order to provide readers with the necessary understanding about recent advances, trends, and challenges in state-of-the-art Σ∆Ms. It makes more emphasis on two key points, which were not treated so deeply in the first edition:

  • It includes a more detailed explanation of Σ∆Ms implemented using Continuous-Time (CT) circuits, going from system-level synthesis to practical circuit limitations.
  • It provides more practical case studies and applications, as well as a deeper description of the synthesis methodologies and CAD tools employed in the design of Σ∆ converters.

Sigma-Delta Converters: Practical Design Guide, 2nd Edition serves as an excellent textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in electrical engineering as well as design engineers working on SD data-converters, who are looking for a uniform and self-contained reference in this hot topic. With this goal in mind, and based on the feedback received from readers, the contents have been revised and structured to make this new edition a unique monograph written in a didactical, pedagogical, and intuitive style. 

Preface xix

Acknowledgements xxv

List of Abbreviations xxvii

1 Introduction to 𝚺𝚫 Modulators: Fundamentals, Basic Architecture and Performance Metrics 1

1.1 Basics of Analog-to-Digital Conversion 2

1.1.1 Sampling 3

1.1.2 Quantization 4

1.1.3 Quantization White Noise Model 5

1.1.4 Noise Shaping 8

1.2 Sigma-Delta Modulation 9

1.2.1 From Noise-shaped Systems to ΣΔ Modulators 10

1.2.2 Performance Metrics of ΣΔMs 11

1.3 The First-order ΣΔ Modulator 13

1.4 Performance Enhancement and Taxonomy of ΣΔMs 16

1.4.1 ΣΔM System-level Design Parameters and Strategies 17

1.4.2 Classification of ΣΔMs 18

1.5 Putting All The Pieces Together: From ΣΔMs to ΣΔ ADCs 19

1.5.1 Some Words about ΣΔ Decimators 20

1.6 ΣΔ DACs 22

1.6.1 System Design Trade-offs and Signal Processing in ΣΔ DACs 22

1.6.2 Implementation of Digital ΣΔMs used in DACs 24

1.7 Summary 25

References 26

2 Taxonomy of 𝚺𝚫 Architectures 29

2.1 Second-order ΣΔ Modulators 30

2.1.1 Alternative Representations of Second-order ΣΔMs 31

2.1.2 Second-Order ΣΔM with Unity STF 34

2.2 High-order Single-loop ΣΔMs 35

2.3 Cascade ΣΔ Modulators 39

2.3.1 SMASH ΣΔM Architectures 46

2.4 Multi-bit ΣΔ Modulators 49

2.4.1 Influence of Multi-bit DAC Errors 49

2.4.2 Dynamic Element Matching Techniques 50

2.4.3 Dual Quantization 53

2.4.3.1 Dual-quantization Single-loop ΣΔMs 53

2.4.3.2 Dual-quantization Cascade ΣΔMs 54

2.5 Band-pass ΣΔ Modulators 55

2.5.1 Quadrature BP-ΣΔMs 56

2.5.2 The z → −z2 LP–BP Transformation 58

2.5.3 BP-ΣΔMs with Optimized NTF 58

2.5.4 Time-interleaved and Polyphase BP-ΣΔMs 61

2.6 Continuous-time ΣΔ Modulators: Architecture and Basic Concepts 64

2.6.1 An Intuitive Analysis of CT-ΣΔMs 66

2.6.2 Some Words about Alias Rejection in CT-ΣΔMs 69

2.7 DT–CT Transformation of ΣΔMs 70

2.7.1 The Impulse-invariant Transformation 70

2.7.2 DT–CT Transformation of a Second-order ΣΔM 72

2.8 Direct Synthesis of CT-ΣΔMs 74

2.9 Summary 76

References 76

3 Circuit Errors in Switched-capacitor 𝚺𝚫 Modulators 83

3.1 Overview of Nonidealities in Switched-capacitor ΣΔ Modulators 84

3.2 Finite Amplifier Gain in SC-ΣΔMs 86

3.3 Capacitor Mismatch in SC-ΣΔMs 90

3.4 Integrator Settling Error in SC-ΣΔMs 91

3.4.1 Behavioral Model for the Integrator Settling 91

3.4.2 Linear Effect of Finite Amplifier Gain–Bandwidth Product 95

3.4.3 Nonlinear Effect of Finite Amplifier Slew Rate 98

3.4.4 Effect of Finite Switch On-resistance 100

3.5 Circuit Noise in SC-ΣΔMs 101

3.6 Clock Jitter in SC-ΣΔMs 105

3.7 Sources of Distortion in SC-ΣΔMs 107

3.7.1 Nonlinear Amplifier Gain 107

3.7.2 Nonlinear Switch On-Resistance 109

3.8 Case Study: High-level Sizing of a ΣΔM 111

3.8.1 Ideal Modulator Performance 111

3.8.2 Noise Leakages 112

3.8.3 Circuit Noise 115

3.8.4 Settling Error 116

3.8.5 Overall High-Level Sizing and Noise Budget 117

3.9 Summary 119

References 119

4 Circuit Errors and Compensation Techniques in Continuous-time 𝚺𝚫 Modulators 123

4.1 Overview of Nonidealities in Continuous-time ΣΔ Modulators 123

4.2 CT Integrators and Resonators 124

4.3 Finite Amplifier Gain in CT-ΣΔMs 126

4.4 Time-constant Error in CT-ΣΔMs 128

4.5 Finite Integrator Dynamics in CT-ΣΔMs 130

4.5.1 Effect of Finite Gain–Bandwidth Product on CT-ΣΔMs 131

4.5.2 Effect of Finite Slew Rate on CT-ΣΔMs 133

4.6 Sources of Distortion in CT-ΣΔMs 134

4.6.1 Nonlinearities in the Front-end Integrator 134

4.6.2 Intersymbol Interference in the Feedback DAC 136

4.7 Circuit Noise in CT-ΣΔMs 137

4.7.1 Noise Analysis Considering NRZ Feedback DACs 137

4.7.2 Noise Analysis Considering SC Feedback DACs 139

4.8 Clock Jitter in CT-ΣΔMs 140

4.8.1 Jitter in Return-to-zero DACs 141

4.8.2 Jitter in Non-return-to-zero DACs 142

4.8.3 Jitter in Switched-capacitor DACs 144

4.8.4 Lingering Effect of Clock Jitter Error 145

4.8.5 Reducing the Effect of Clock Jitter with FIR and Sine-shaped DACs 147

4.9 Excess Loop Delay in CT-ΣΔMs 149

4.9.1 Intuitive Analysis of ELD 149

4.9.2 Analysis of ELD based on Impulse-invariant DT-CT Transformation 151

4.9.3 Alternative ELD Compensation Techniques 154

4.10 Quantizer Metastability in CT-ΣΔMs 155

4.11 Summary 159

References 160

5 Behavioral Modeling and High-level Simulation 165

5.1 Systematic Design Methodology of ΣΔ Modulators 165

5.1.1 System Partitioning and Abstraction Levels 167

5.1.2 Sizing Process 167

5.2 Simulation Approaches for the High-level Evaluation of ΣΔMs 169

5.2.1 Alternatives to Transistor-level Simulation 169

5.2.2 Event-driven Behavioral Simulation Technique 171

5.2.3 Programming Languages and Behavioral Modeling Platforms 172

5.3 Implementing ΣΔM Behavioral Models 173

5.3.1 From Circuit Analysis to Computational Algorithms 173

5.3.2 Time-domain versus Frequency-domain Behavioral Models 175

5.3.3 Implementing Time-domain Behavioral Models in MATLAB 178

5.3.4 Building Time-domain Behavioral Models as SIMULINK C-MEX S-functions 182

5.4 Efficient Behavioral Modeling of ΣΔM Building Blocks using C-MEX S-functions 188

5.4.1 Modeling of SC Integrators using S-functions 188

5.4.1.1 Capacitor Mismatch and Nonlinearity 190

5.4.1.2 Input-referred Thermal Noise 191

5.4.1.3 Switch On-resistance Dynamics 194

5.4.1.4 Incomplete Settling Error 197

5.4.2 Modeling of CT Integrators using S-functions 200

5.4.2.1 Single-pole Gm-C Model 200

5.4.2.2 Two-pole Dynamics Model 201

5.4.2.3 Modeling Transconductors as S-functions 203

5.4.3 Behavioral Modeling of Quantizers using S-functions 205

5.4.3.1 Modeling Multi-level ADCs as S-functions 205

5.4.3.2 Modeling Multi-level DACs as S-functions 207

5.5 SIMSIDES: A SIMULINK-based Behavioral Simulator for ΣΔMs 209

5.5.1 Model Libraries Included in SIMSIDES 210

5.5.2 Structure of SIMSIDES and its User Interface 211

5.5.2.1 Creating a New ΣΔM Block Diagram 212

5.5.2.2 Setting Model Parameters 215

5.5.2.3 Simulation Analyses 215

5.6 Using SIMSIDES for High-level Sizing and Verification of ΣΔMs 216

5.6.1 SC Second-order Single-Bit ΣΔM 216

5.6.1.1 Effect of Amplifier Finite DC Gain 218

5.6.1.2 Effect of Thermal Noise 218

5.6.1.3 Effect of the Incomplete Settling Error 220

5.6.1.4 Cumulative Effect of All Errors 221

5.6.2 CT Fifth-order Cascade 3-2 Multi-bit ΣΔM 224

5.6.2.1 Effect of Nonideal Effects 227

5.6.2.2 High-level Synthesis and Verification 229

5.7 Summary 231

References 231

6 Automated Design and Optimization of 𝚺𝚫Ms 235

6.1 Architecture Exploration and Selection: Schreier’s Toolbox 236

6.1.1 Basic Functions of Schreier’s Delta-Sigma Toolbox 236

6.1.2 Synthesis of a Fourth-order CRFF LP/BP SC-ΣΔM with Tunable Notch 238

6.1.3 Synthesis of a Fourth-order BP CT-ΣΔM with Tunable Notch 240

6.2 Optimization-based High-level Synthesis of ΣΔ Modulators 245

6.2.1 Combining Behavioral Simulation and Optimization 246

6.2.2 Using Simulated Annealing as Optimization Engine 247

6.2.3 Combining SIMSIDES with MATLAB Optimizers 253

6.3 Lifting Method and Hardware Acceleration to Optimize CT-ΣΔMs 255

6.3.1 Hardware Emulation of CT-ΣΔMs on an FPGA 257

6.3.2 GPU-accelerated Computing of CT-ΣΔMs 258

6.4 Using Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms to Optimize ΣΔMs 259

6.4.1 Combining MOEA with SIMSIDES 261

6.4.2 Applying MOEA and SIMSIDES to the Synthesis of CT-ΣΔMs 262

6.5 Summary 269

References 269

7 Electrical Design of 𝚺𝚫Ms: From Systems to Circuits 271

7.1 Macromodeling ΣΔMs 272

7.1.1 SC Integrator Macromodel 272

7.1.1.1 Switch Macromodel 272

7.1.1.2 OTA Macromodel 274

7.1.2 CT Integrator Macromodel 274

7.1.2.1 Active-RC Integrators 274

7.1.2.2 Gm-C Integrators 274

7.1.3 Nonlinear OTA Transconductor 275

7.1.4 Embedded Flash ADC Macromodel 276

7.1.5 Feedback DAC Macromodel 277

7.2 Examples of ΣΔM Macromodels 279

7.2.1 SC Second-order Example 279

7.2.2 Second-order Active-RC ΣΔM 283

7.3 Including Noise in Transient Electrical Simulations of ΣΔMs 286

7.3.1 Generating and Injecting Noise Data Sequences in HSPICE 287

7.3.2 Analyzing the Impact of the Main Noise Sources in SC Integrators 289

7.3.3 Generating and Injecting Flicker Noise Sources in Electrical Simulations 289

7.3.4 Test Bench to Include Noise in the Simulation of ΣΔMs 293

7.4 Processing ΣΔM Output Results of Electrical Simulations 294

7.5 Summary 298

References 298

8 Design Considerations of 𝚺𝚫M Subcircuits 301

8.1 Design Considerations of CMOS Switches 302

8.1.1 Trade-Off Between Ron and the CMOS Switch Drain/Source Parasitic Capacitances 302

8.1.2 Characterizing the Nonlinear Behavior of Ron 302

8.1.3 Influence of Technology Downscaling on the Design of Switches 304

8.1.4 Evaluating Harmonic Distortion due to CMOS Switches 305

8.2 Design Considerations of Operational Amplifiers 308

8.2.1 Typical Amplifier Topologies 309

8.2.2 Common-mode Feedback Networks 311

8.2.3 Characterization of the Amplifier in AC 313

8.2.4 Characterization of the Amplifier in DC 313

8.2.5 Characterization of the Amplifier Gain Nonlinearity 316

8.3 Design Considerations of Transconductors 317

8.3.1 Highly Linear Front-end Transconductor 318

8.3.2 Loop-filter Transconductors 320

8.3.3 Widely Programmable Transconductors 323

8.4 Design Considerations of Comparators 324

8.4.1 Regenerative Latch-based Comparators 325

8.4.2 Design Guidelines of Comparators 327

8.4.3 Characterization of Offset and Hysteresis Based on the Input-ramp Method 328

8.4.4 Characterization of Offset and Hysteresis Based on the Bisectional Method 328

8.4.5 Characterizing the Comparison Time 330

8.5 Design Considerations of Current-Steering DACs 332

8.5.1 Fundamentals and Basic Concepts of CS DACs 333

8.5.2 Practical Realization of CS DACs 333

8.5.3 Current Cell Circuits, Error Limitations, and Design Criteria 336

8.5.4 CS 4-bit DAC Example 336

8.6 Summary 338

References 338

9 Practical Realization of 𝚺𝚫Ms: From Circuits to Chips 341

9.1 Auxiliary ΣΔM Building Blocks 341

9.1.1 Clock-phase Generators 342

9.1.1.1 Phase Generation 342

9.1.1.2 Phase Buffering 342

9.1.1.3 Phase Distribution 344

9.1.2 Generation of Common-mode Voltage, Reference Voltage, and Bias Currents 345

9.1.2.1 Bandgap Circuit 345

9.1.2.2 Reference Voltage Generator 345

9.1.2.3 Master Bias Current Generator 346

9.1.2.4 Common-mode Voltage Generator 346

9.1.3 Additional Digital Logic 347

9.2 Layout Design, Floorplanning, and Practical Issues 348

9.2.1 Layout Floorplanning 348

9.2.1.1 Divide Layout into Different Parts or Regions 348

9.2.1.2 Shield Sensitive ΣΔM Analog Subcircuits from Switching Noise 349

9.2.1.3 Buses to Distribute Signals Shared by Different ΣΔM Parts 349

9.2.1.4 Be Obsessive about Layout Symmetry and Details of Analog Parts 349

9.2.2 I/O Pad Ring 350

9.2.3 Importance of Layout Verification and Catastrophic Failure 350

9.3 Chip Package, Test PCB, and Experimental Setup 354

9.3.1 Bonding Diagram and Package 354

9.3.2 Test PCB 355

9.4 Experimental Test Set-Up 355

9.4.1 Planning the Type and Number of Instruments Needed 357

9.4.2 Connecting Lab Instruments 357

9.4.3 Measurement Set-Up Example 358

9.5 ΣΔM Design Examples and Case Studies 359

9.5.1 Programmable-gain ΣΔMs for High Dynamic Range Sensor Interfaces 360

9.5.1.1 Main Design Criteria and Performance Limitations 361

9.5.1.2 SC Realization with Programmable Gain and Double Sampling 362

9.5.1.3 Influence of Chopper Frequency on Flicker Noise 362

9.5.2 Reconfigurable SC-ΣΔMs for Multi-standard Direct Conversion Receivers 364

9.5.2.1 Power-scaling Circuit Techniques 367

9.5.2.2 Experimental Results 368

9.5.3 Using Widely-programmable Gm-LC BP-ΣΔMs for RF Digitizers 368

9.5.3.1 Application Scenario 371

9.5.3.2 Gm-LC BP-ΣΔM High-level Sizing 371

9.5.3.3 BP CT-ΣΔM Loop-Filter Reconfiguration Techniques 375

9.5.3.4 Embedded 4-bit Quantizer with Calibration 378

9.5.3.5 Biasing, Digital Control Programmability and Testability 382

9.6 Summary 385

References 386

10 Frontiers, Trends and Challenges: Towards Next-generation 𝚺𝚫 Modulators 389

10.1 State-of-the-Art ADCs: Nyquist-rate versus ΣΔ Converters 390

10.1.1 Conversion Energy 391

10.1.2 Figures of Merit 392

10.2 Comparison of Different Categories of ΣΔ ADCs 393

10.2.1 Aperture Plot of ΣΔMs 406

10.2.2 Energy Plot of ΣΔMs 407

10.3 Empirical and Statistical Analysis of State-of-the-Art ΣΔMs 408

10.3.1 SC versus CT ΣΔMs 408

10.3.2 Technology used in State-of-the-Art ΣΔMs 410

10.3.3 Single-Loop versus Cascade ΣΔMs 410

10.3.4 Single-bit versus Multi-bit ΣΔMs 411

10.3.5 Low-pass versus Band-pass ΣΔMs 413

10.3.6 Emerging ΣΔM Techniques 415

10.4 Gigahertz-range ΣΔMs for RF-to-digital Conversion 415

10.5 Enhanced Cascade ΣΔMs 418

10.5.1 SMASH CT-ΣΔMs 418

10.5.2 Two-stage 0-L MASH 419

10.5.3 Stage-sharing Cascade ΣΔMs 420

10.5.4 Multi-rate and Hybrid CT/DT ΣΔMs 420

10.5.4.1 Upsampling Cascade MR-ΣΔMs 421

10.5.4.2 Downsampling Hybrid CT/DT Cascade MR-ΣΔMs 422

10.6 Power-efficient ΣΔM Loop-filter Techniques 423

10.6.1 Inverter-based ΣΔMs 423

10.6.2 Hybrid Active/Passive and Amplifier-less ΣΔMs 424

10.6.3 Power-efficient Amplifier Techniques 426

10.7 Hybrid ΣΔM/Nyquist-rate ADCs 428

10.7.1 Multi-bit ΣΔM Quantizers based on Nyquist-rate ADCs 428

10.7.2 Incremental ΣΔ ADCs 429

10.8 Time-based ΣΔ ADCs 431

10.8.1 ΣΔMs with VCO/PWM-based Quantization 432

10.8.2 Scaling-friendly Mostly-digital ΣΔMs 433

10.8.3 GRO-based ΣΔMs 434

10.9 DAC Techniques for High-performance CT-ΣΔMs 436

10.10 Classification of State-of-the-Art References 437

10.11 Summary and Conclusions 437

References 438

A State-space Analysis of Clock Jitter in CT-𝚺𝚫Ms 463

A.1 State-space Representation of NTF (z) 463

A.2 Expectation Value of (Δqn)2 465

A.3 In-band Noise Power due to Clock Jitter 466

References 467

B SIMSIDES User Guide 469

B.1 Getting Started: Installing and Running SIMSIDES 470

B.2 Building and Editing ΣΔM Architectures in SIMSIDES 470

B.3 Analyzing ΣΔMs in SIMSIDES 473

B.3.1 Node Spectrum Analysis 474

B.3.2 Integrated Power Noise 474

B.3.3 SNR/SNDR 475

B.3.4 Harmonic Distortion 475

B.3.5 Integral and Differential Non-Linearity 477

B.3.6 Multi-tone Power Ratio 477

B.3.7 Histogram 478

B.3.8 Parametric Analysis 478

B.3.9 Monte Carlo Analysis 479

B.4 Optimization Interface 480

B.5 Tutorial Example: Using SIMSIDES to Model and Analyze ΣΔMs 482

B.5.1 Creating the Cascade 2-1 ΣΔM Block Diagram in SIMSIDES 482

B.5.2 Setting Model Parameters 482

B.5.3 Computing the Output Spectrum 484

B.5.4 SNR versus Input Amplitude Level 486

B.5.5 Parametric Analysis Considering Only One Parameter 487

B.5.6 Parametric Analysis Considering Two Parameters 488

B.5.7 Computing Histograms 489

B.6 Getting Help 489

C SIMSIDES Block Libraries and Models 491

C.1 Overview of SIMSIDES Libraries 491

C.2 Ideal Libraries 492

C.2.1 Ideal Integrators 492

C.2.1.1 Building-block Model Purpose and Description 492

C.2.1.2 Model Parameters 493

C.2.2 Ideal Resonators 493

C.2.2.1 Ideal_LD_Resonator 493

C.2.2.2 Ideal_FE_Resonator 493

C.2.2.3 Ideal_CT_Resonator 493

C.2.3 Ideal Quantizers 494

C.2.3.1 Ideal_Comparator 494

C.2.3.2 Ideal_Comparator_for_SI 495

C.2.3.3 Ideal_Multibit_Quantizer 495

C.2.3.4 Ideal_Multibit_Quantizer_for_SI 496

C.2.3.5 Ideal_Multibit_Quantizer_levels 496

C.2.3.6 Ideal_Multibit_Quantizer_levels_SD2 496

C.2.3.7 Ideal_Sampler 496

C.2.4 Ideal D/A Converters 496

C.2.4.1 Ideal_DAC_for_SI 496

C.2.4.2 Ideal_DAC_dig_level_SD2 497

C.3 Real SC Building-Block Libraries 497

C.3.1 Real SC Integrators 497

C.3.2 Real SC Resonators 501

C.4 Real SI Building-Block Libraries 503

C.4.1 Real SI Integrators 503

C.4.2 Real SI Resonators 505

C.4.3 SI Errors and Model Parameters 506

C.4.3.1 Basic_SI_FE(LD)_Integrator and Basic_SI_FE(LD)_Resonator 506

C.4.3.2 SI_FE(LD)_Int_Finite_Conductance 507

C.4.3.3 SI_FE(LD)_Int_Finite_Conductance & Settling & ChargeInjection 508

C.5 Real CT Building-Block Libraries 508

C.5.1 Real CT Integrators 508

C.5.1.1 Model Parameters used in Transconductors and Gm-C Integrator Building Blocks 511

C.5.1.2 Gm-MC Integrators 511

C.5.1.3 Active-RC Integrators 512

C.5.1.4 MOSFET-C Integrators 513

C.5.2 Real CT Resonators 513

C.5.2.1 Gm-C Resonators 514

C.5.2.2 Gm-LC Resonators 517

C.6 Real Quantizers & Comparators 517

C.7 Real D/A Converters 518

C.8 Auxiliary Blocks 519

Index 523