This book is motivated by the observation that analytical chemistry and signal processing specialists are at the same time very far and close—far in field theories and tools, conferences and journals and yet the closest in every-day methodology and practice. Namely, the chemical analyst approach to performing an analysis, resorting from different preparation steps to different analytical techniques, resembles the manner employed in traditional signal or image analysis. This book bridges these communities. Signal processing tools cover a widest range of needs and applications, and could allow interesting cross-fertilization between both signal processing and analytical chemistry, borrowing from the latest advances in multimedia audio/image/video processing, sensor design and communications. This is a unique book aimed at better mixing analytical chemists and signal processing specialists.