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Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Devices and Components: Design, Fabrication, and International Standards

Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Devices and Components: Design, Fabrication, and International Standards

Kyunghwan Oh, Un-Chul Paek

ISBN: 978-1-118-58588-7

Nov 2012

472 pages



From basic physics to new products, Silica Optical Fiber Technology for Device and Components examines all aspects of specialty optical fibers. Moreover, the inclusion of the latest international standards governing optical fibers enables you to move from research to fabrication to commercialization.

• Reviews all the latest specialty optical fiber technologies, including those developed for high capacity WDM applications; broadband fiber amplifiers; fiber filleters based on periodic coupling; fiber branching devices; and fiber terminations

• Discusses key differences among single mode fibers, multimode fibers for high speed Ethernet LAN, and dispersion compensating fibers for long-haul applications

• Compares the most recently developed conventional optical fibers with the latest photonic crystal fibers still in development

A self-contained, menu-driven software program is included for optical fiber design, simulating waveguide structures for most of the fibers discussed in the book.

Preface ix

Acknowledgment xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Brief Historical Review of Silica Optical Fibers 1

1.2 International Standards for Silica Optical Fibers 8

1.3 Classifications of Silica Optical Fibers 12

References 16

2 Review on Single-Mode Fiber Design and International Standards 18

2.1 Optical Modes in Cylindrical Waveguides 18

2.2 Material Dispersion in Optical Fibers 37

2.3 Optical Attributes for Single-Mode Fiber Characterization and Classification 48

2.4 International Standards for Single-Mode Fibers 64

References 79

3 Preform Fabrication and Optical Fiber Drawing Process 83

3.1 Preform Fabrication Based on Chemical Vapor Deposition Process 83

3.2 Postprocesses for Geometrical Modification of Preform 101

3.3 Optical Fiber Drawing 104

References 126

4 Dispersion-Managed Single-Mode Fibers for Wavelength Division Multiplexing 131

4.1 Wavelength Allocations in Single-Mode Fibers for WDM Applications 131

4.2 Optimization of Waveguide Parameters for Dispersion Control 137

4.3 Refractive Index Profile Analysis for Dispersion-Shifted Fibers 150

4.4 Dispersion-Compensating Fibers Using the Fundamental Mode 157

4.5 Dispersion Compensation Using High-Order Modes 168

References 181

5 Multimode Fibers for Large-Bandwidth Applications 185

5.1 History and Recent Application Trends of Multimode Optical Fibers 185

5.2 Principle of Multimode Optical Fiber Design 190

5.3 Impacts of Nonideal a-Refractive Index Profile on Transmission Bandwidth 197

5.4 Main Attributes of GI-MMFs-Bandwidth and Differential Modal Delay 203

5.5 Multimode Optical Fiber Standards 213

References 221

6 Optical Nonlinearity Control in Optical Fibers 224

6.1 Historical Review of Optical Nonlinearity in Optical Fibers 224

6.2 Origin of Optical Nonlinearities in Optical Fibers 226

6.3 Specifications of Nonlinear Optical Processes in Optical Fibers 231

6.4 Comparison of Raman and Brillouin Scattering in Single-Mode Optical Fibers 234

6.5 Control of Raman Scattering in Silica Optical Fibers 236

6.6 Brief Review on Raman Amplifiers and Lasers 245

6.7 Control of Brillouin Scattering in Silica Optical Fibers 253

6.8 Review on Fiber Brillouin Sensors and Recent Novel Applications 267

References 273

7 Birefringence Control in Optical Fibers 280

7.1 Physical Parameters for the Polarization Characterization in Optical Fibers 280

7.2 Representation of the State of Polarization in Optical Fiber Using Poincare´ Sphere 286

7.3 Classifications of Linear Polarization Maintaining Fibers 290

7.4 Fabrication Methods for High Birefringence Fibers 294

7.5 Control of Birefringence by Waveguide Design in Birefringent Fibers 296

7.6 Single-Polarization Single-Mode Fibers 304

7.7 Low Linear Birefringence Fibers 310

References 316

8 Optical Fibers Based on Air–Silica Guiding Structure 321

8.1 Review of Air–Silica Guidance in Optical Fibers 321

8.2 Fabrication Technique—Stack and Draw Method 322

8.3 Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Optical Fibers 324

8.4 Large Mode Area and Bending Loss Based on Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Holey Fibers 331

8.5 Dispersion Control in Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Holey Fibers 335

8.6 Optical Loss in Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Holey Fibers 342

8.7 Kerr Nonlinearity in Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Holey Fibers 347

8.8 Birefringence Control in Effective Index Guiding Air–Silica Holey Fibers 351

8.9 Hollow Optical Fiber and its Applications 355

References 368

9 Fiber Mode Analysis Using OFACAD 378

9.1 Theoretical Review on Cascaded Boundary Matrix Method 378

9.2 Algorithm for CBM to Find Optical Properties of Guided Modes 384

9.3 Mode Analysis Example Using OFACAD 386

References 399

Appendix A: OFACAD Installation/Operation Manual 401

Appendix B: Operation Manual of OFACAD 415

Index 447

“The technical level is suitable for students of science and engineering in their first or second year of graduate school.”  (Book News, 1 April 2012)