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Small Animal Ophthalmic Atlas and Guide

Small Animal Ophthalmic Atlas and Guide

Christine C. Lim

ISBN: 978-1-118-68955-4

Apr 2015, Wiley-Blackwell

168 pages

Description

Small Animal Ophthalmic Atlas and Guide offers fast access to a picture-matching guide to common ophthalmic conditions and key points related to diagnosing and managing these diseases.  The first half of the book presents photographs of ophthalmic abnormalities with brief descriptions, as an aid for diagnosis.  The second half of the book is devoted to concise, clinically oriented descriptions of disease processes, diagnostic tests, and treatments for each condition.  Small Animal Ophthalmic Atlas and Guide is a useful tool for quickly and accurately formulating a diagnosis, diagnostic strategy, and treatment plan for small animal patients.

Ideally suited for use in the fast-paced practice setting, this text provides both reference images and information for managing the disease in a single text.  Small Animal Ophthalmic Atlas and Guide is an easy-to-use aid for small animal general practitioners, veterinary students, and veterinary interns seeking a quick yet complete guide to small animal ophthalmology.

Preface, x

List of abbreviations xi

Glossary xii

Section I Atlas 1

1 Orbit 3

Clinical signs associated with orbital neoplasia 3

Clinical signs associated with orbital cellulitis 3

Enophthalmos 4

Brachycephalic ocular syndrome 4

Ventromedial entropion associated with brachycephalic ocular syndrome 4

Clinical signs associated with Horner’s syndrome 5

Clinical signs associated with Horner’s syndrome 5

Appearance of Horner’s syndrome following application of sympathomimetic drugs 5

Clinical signs associated with orbital neoplasia 6

Clinical signs associated with proptosis 6

2 Eyelids 7

Normal appearance of punctum 7

Ectopic cilia 7

Distichiae 8

Distichiae 8

Ectopic cilia and chalazion 8

Lower eyelid entropion due to conformation 9

Facial trichiasis 9

Eyelid agenesis 9

Appearance of entropion after temporary correction using tacking sutures 10

Lower eyelid ectropion 10

Meibomian adenoma 10

Meibomian adenoma 11

Eyelid melanocytoma 11

Chalazion 11

Blepharitis 12

Blepharitis 12

Blepharitis 12

3 Third eyelid, nasolacrimal system, and precorneal tear film 13

Pathologic changes to the third eyelid associated with pannus 13

Scrolled third eyelid cartilage 13

Prolapsed third eyelid gland (“cherry eye”) 14

Prolapsed third eyelid gland (“cherry eye”) 14

Superficial neoplasia of the third eyelid 14

Neoplasia of the third eyelid gland 15

Positive Jones test – appearance of fluorescein in mouth 15

Positive Jones test – appearance of fluorescein at nostril 15

4 Conjunctiva 16

Normal appearance of the conjunctiva 16

Conjunctival hyperemia 16

Chemosis and conjunctival hyperemia 17

Chemosis 17

Conjunctival follicles 17

Conjunctival thickening associated with infiltrative neoplasia 18

Superficial conjunctival neoplasia 18

Subconjunctival hemorrhage 18

Conjunctival follicles 19

Superficial conjunctival neoplasia 19

Conjunctival neoplasia 19

5 Cornea, 20

Superficial corneal vascularization associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 20

Appearance of a dry cornea with concurrent anterior uveitis, 20

Typical appearance of superficial corneal vessels, 21

Typical appearance of deep corneal vessels, 21

Typical appearance of corneal edema, 21

Corneal melanosis, 22

Typical melanin distribution associated with pigmentary keratitis, 22

Typical appearance of corneal fibrosis with concurrent corneal vascularization, 22

Corneal white cell infiltrate with concurrent corneal vascularization and edema, 23

Corneal deposits associated with corneal dystrophy, 23

Corneal deposits associated with corneal dystrophy, 23

Corneal mineral deposits, 24

Typical changes associated with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, 24

Predominantly melanotic corneal changes associated with pannus, 24

Predominantly fibrovascular corneal changes associated with pannus, 25

Corneal changes associated with pannus, mixture of melanosis and fibrovascular changes, 25

Superficial corneal ulcer, 25

Indolent corneal ulcer with fluorescein stain applied, 26

Indolent corneal ulcer prior to fluorescein stain, 26

Indolent corneal ulcer after fluorescein stain, 26

Deep corneal ulcer, 27

Descemetocele after application of fluorescein stain, 27

Descemetocele after application of fluorescein stain, viewed with cobalt blue light, 27

Corneal perforation with iris prolapse, 28

Corneal perforation with iris prolapse and hyphema, 28

Corneal perforation with large iris prolapse, 28

Melting corneal ulcer, 29

Perforated melting corneal ulcer, 29

Dendritic corneal ulcers, 29

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis 30

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis 30

Eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis 30

Corneal sequestrum; light brown, with minimal keratitis 31

Corneal sequestrum; dark brown, with moderate keratoconjunctivitis 31

Corneal sequestrum; dark brown, with significant keratoconjunctivitis 31

6 Anterior uvea 32

Iris-to-cornea persistent pupillary membranes 32

Iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes 32

Posterior synechiae 33

Anterior chamber uveal cysts 33

Anterior chamber uveal cysts 33

Transillumination of posterior chamber uveal cysts 34

Iris atrophy 34

Iris atrophy 34

Severe iris atrophy 35

Focal iris hyperpigmentation 35

Feline diffuse iris melanoma 35

Feline diffuse iris melanoma 36

Canine melanocytoma 36

Canine melanocytoma 36

Canine ciliary body adenoma 37

Clinical signs of uveitis: chemosis, episcleral congestion, deep corneal vascularization, and diffuse corneal edema 37

Aqueous flare 37

Keratic precipitates 38

Hypopyon with concurrent corneal ulceration 38

Hyphema 38

Rubeosis iridis 39

Iris thickening 39

Posterior synechia 39

Iris bombé 40

7 Lens 41

Nuclear sclerosis 41

Nuclear sclerosis 41

Incipient cataract 42

Incipient cataract 42

Incomplete cataract 42

Incomplete cataract 43

Incomplete cataract 43

Complete cataract 43

Complete, resorbing cataract 44

Incomplete resorbing cataract 44

Lens subluxation 44

Lens subluxation 45

Anterior lens luxation 45

Posterior lens luxation 45

8 Posterior segment 46

Normal canine fundus 46

Normal canine fundus 46

Normal feline fundus 47

Subalbinotic, atapetal canine fundus 47

Subalbinotic feline fundus 47

Tapetal hyperreflectivity and retinal vascular attenuation in a cat 48

Tapetal hyperreflectivity and retinal vascular attenuation in a dog 48

Focal retinal degeneration/chorioretinal scar 48

Focal retinal degeneration/chorioretinal scar 49

Tapetal hyporeflectivity due to hypertensive retinopathy 49

Tapetal hyporeflectivity 49

Tapetal hyporeflectivity 50

Fluid and white cell infiltrate in the nontapetal fundus (chorioretinitis) 50

Focal white cell infiltrate (chorioretinitis) and retinal degeneration in the nontapetal fundus 50

Multifocal retinal degeneration in the nontapetal fundus 51

Hemorrhage in the nontapetal fundus 51

Hemorrhage in the tapetal fundus 51

Serous retinal detachment and retinal hemorrhage due to hypertensive retinopathy 52

External view of serous retinal detachment 52

Serous retinal detachment 52

Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment 53

Optic nerve atrophy/degeneration - mild 53

Optic nerve atrophy/degeneration - severe 53

Optic disc cupping in an atapetal fundus 54

Optic disc cupping 54

Optic neuritis 54

Optic neuritis 55

Asteroid hyalosis 55

Choroidal hypoplasia (collie eye anomaly) 55

Posterior polar coloboma and choroidal hypoplasia (collie eye anomaly) in a subalbinotic fundus 56

9 Glaucoma 57

Typical appearance of acute glaucoma 57

Haab’s striae 57

Section II Guide 59

10 Orbit 61

Diseases of the orbit 62

Brachycephalic ocular syndrome 62

Horner’s syndrome 63

Orbital cellulitis and abscess 65

Orbital neoplasia 67

Proptosis 68

Further reading 70

References 70

11 Eyelids 71

Diseases of the eyelid 72

Distichiasis 72

Ectopic cilia 73

Trichiasis 73

Eyelid agenesis 75

Entropion 75

Ectropion 77

Eyelid neoplasia 78

Chalazion 79

Blepharitis 80

Eyelid laceration 81

Further reading 82

References 82

12 The third eyelid, nasolacrimal system, and precorneal tear film 83

Diseases of the third eyelid and lacrimal system 84

Third eyelid gland prolapse (“cherry eye”) 84

Third eyelid neoplasia 85

Nasolacrimal duct obstruction 87

Tear film disorders—KCS 88

Qualitative tear film abnormality 88

References 90

13 Conjunctiva 91

Diseases of conjunctiva 91

Canine conjunctivitis 91

Feline conjunctivitis 93

Conjunctival neoplasia 95

Further reading 96

References 97

14 Cornea 98

Corneal diseases 99

Corneal dystrophy 99

Canine keratitis 100

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) 101

Pigmentary keratitis 103

Pannus/chronic superficial keratitis 104

Corneal ulceration 105

Simple corneal ulceration 105

Indolent corneal ulceration 106

Deep and perforating corneal ulceration 108

Melting corneal ulceration 110

Feline keratitis, nonulcerative and ulcerative 111

Feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis (EK) 112

Corneal sequestrum 113

Further reading 114

References 114

15 Anterior uvea 116

Anterior uveal diseases 116

Persistent pupillary membranes (PPMs) 116

Uveal cysts 117

Iris atrophy 118

Feline diffuse iris melanoma 118

Canine anterior uveal melanocytic neoplasia 119

Iridociliary neoplasia 120

Anterior uveitis 121

Further reading 124

References 124

16 Lens 125

Diseases of the lens 125

Nuclear sclerosis 125

Cataract 126

Lens subluxation and luxation 128

Further reading 129

References 130

17 Posterior segment 131

Diseases of the posterior segment 133

Asteroid hyalosis 133

Collie eye anomaly 133

Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) 134

Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) 135

Retinal degeneration (excluding PRA and SARDS) 136

Chorioretinitis 137

Retinal detachment 138

Hypertensive retinopathy 140

Optic neuritis 141

Further reading 142

References 142

18 Glaucoma 144

Glaucoma 144

Further reading 148

References 148

Index 149

“A practical and very useful tool for one’s daily consults.”  (Vet Nurses Today, 1 October 2015)

“This book will be useful for astute clinicians who can identify the presence of clinical ophthalmic abnormalities in patients but need a quick reference manual for guidance in diagnosing and treating those abnormalities.”  (Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 15 September 2015)

"This is a nice ophthalmic atlas with high quality images and descriptions of diseases and conditions. There are abundant images, which should make identification of most common ophthalmic conditions manageable." (Doody 2016)

"As prefaced by the author, the Atlas and guide is intended as a quick reference to complement more detailed, expansive textbooks, and not as a replacement surgical text. Most importantly, this book does not absolve the practitioner from developing an acceptable protocol of good examination  techniques and use of adequate equipment; rather it will encourage the practitioner to learn more about ophthalmology and seek timely specialist ophthalmologist referral for those patients that require such expertise.

The strength of this new textbook is its cleverly designed, slim layout and its practical tips for commonly encountered eye conditions in small animal practice. Those general practitioners who were given the opportunity to review it were impressed with the ease of image recognition, retrieval of  information on diagnosis and treatment for each different eye condition. In summary, they gave it ‘the thumbs up’ and I concur." (Australian Veterinary Journal, 3 March 2017)

  • Provides both reference images of ocular abnormalities and information for managing disease in a single resource
  • Offers high-quality, carefully chosen photographs for comparison at point of diagnosis
  • Supplies concise descriptions of disease, focusing on the most important information for diagnosis and treatment
  • Aids readers in quickly developing a diagnosis, diagnostic strategy, and treatment plan while the animal is in the exam room
  • Presents essential information on ophthalmology for small animal practitioners, students, and interns
  • Designed for ease of use in the clinical setting