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Social Development, 2nd Edition



Social Development, 2nd Edition

Alison Clarke-Stewart, Ross D. Parke

ISBN: 978-1-118-42518-3 January 2014 608 Pages

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Social Development, Second Edition offers students a fresh and unique set of perspectives on social development. Both students and instructors will find this text to be comprehensive, scholarly, engaging, and include up-to-date treatment of theoretical insights and empirical findings in the field of social development.

Throughout Social Development, authors Alison Clarke-Stewart & Ross D. Parke highlight cultural variations from around the world and within our own society. They emphasize the biological underpinnings within the field of social development in a separate chapter (Chapter 3), and present discussion of research on the cutting edge of the field to capture the excitement of recent advances in this area.

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Preface xii

Chapter 1 Introduction: Theories of Social Development 1

BET YOU DIDN’T KNOW THAT. . . Newborns Can Recognize Their Mothers By Smell 2

Social Development: A Brief History 2

Critical Questions about Social Development 3

1. How Do Biological and Environmental Influences Affect Social Development? 3

2. What Role Do Children Play In Their Own Development? 3

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: Genie, a ‘‘Wild Child’’ 4

3. What Is The Appropriate Unit for Studying Social Development? 4

4. Is Development Continuous or Discontinuous? 5

5. Is Social Behavior the Result of the Situation or the Child? 6

6. Is Social Development Universal Across Cultures?6

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Parenting Advice Around the Globe 6

7. How Does Social Development Vary across Historical Eras? 8

8. Is Social Development Related to Other Developmental Domains? 8

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Children of the Great Depression 9

9. How Important Are Mothers for Children’s Social Development? 9

10. Is There a Single Pathway of Social Development? 10

11. What Influences How We Judge Children’s Social Behavior? 11

12. Do Developmental Psychologists ‘‘Own’’ Social Development? 11

Theoretical Perspectives on Social Development 11

Psychodynamic Perspective 12

Freud’s Theory 12

Erikson’s Theory 14

Psychodynamic Perspective: An Evaluation 14

INTO ADULTHOOD: Fatherhood and Generativity 15

Traditional Learning Theory Perspective 15

Classical and Operant Conditioning 16

Learning Theory Approaches: An Evaluation 16

Cognitive Learning Perspective 17

Cognitive Social-Learning Theory 17

Beyond Modeling: Reciprocal Determination and Self-Efficacy 17

Cognitive Social-Learning Theory: An Evaluation 19

Information-Processing Perspective 19

Social Information Processing 19

Social Information Processing: An Evaluation 20

Cognitive Developmental Perspective 20

Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory 20

Piaget’s Theory: An Evaluation 21

Social Cognitive Domain Theory 21

Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory 22

Vygotsky’s Theory: An Evaluation 22

Systems-Theory Perspective 22

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory 23

Ecological Systems Theory: An Evaluation 23

Biological Perspective 23

Ethological Theory 23

Ethological Theory: An Evaluation 25

Evolutionary Developmental Theory 25

Evolutionary Developmental Theory: An Evaluation 26

Human Behavior Genetics 26

Human Behavior Genetics: An Evaluation 27

Life Span Perspective 27

Life Span Perspective: An Evaluation 28

A Variety of Theoretical Perspectives 28


David Bjorklund 29

Chapter Summary 30

Key Terms 33

Chapter 2 Research Methods: Tools for Discovery 34

Getting Started: Formulating Hypotheses, Asking Questions 35

Research Methods: Establishing Patterns and Causes 35

The Correlational Method 35

Laboratory Experiments 36

Field Experiments, Interventions, and Natural Experiments 37

Field Experiments 38

Interventions 38

Natural Experiments 38

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: Lost and Found Children 39

Combining Different Methods 39

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Treating an Aggressive Child 40

The Case Study Approach 41

Studying Change Over Time 41

Cross-Sectional Design 41

Longitudinal Design 41

INTO ADULTHOOD: Behavior in Childhood Predicts Adult Outcomes 43

Sequential Design 43

Selecting a Sample 45

Representativeness of the Sample 45

The National Survey Approach 45

Meta-Analysis: Combining Results Across Studies 46

Studying Development Cross-Culturally 46

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Challenges for Researchers 47

Gathering Data 47

Children’s Self-Reports 47

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: The Puppet Interview Method 48

Reports by Family Members, Teachers, and Peers 49

Family Members 50

Teachers and Peers 51

Focus Groups 51

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Parents Can Accurately Report Their Children’s Early Years 52

Direct Observation 53

Naturalistic Observation 53

Structured Observation 53

Ways of Recording and Coding Observations 54

Behavior Observations 54

Ethnographic Approaches 55

Nonverbal Measures 55

Internal Responses 56

Analyzing Data 58

Ethics of Research with Children 59


Linda M. Burton 61

Megan Gunnar 62

Chapter Summary 63

Key Terms 64

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations: Roots in Neurons and Genes 65

Biological Preparedness for Social Interaction 66

How Are Babies Prepared? 66

From Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythms 66

Visual Preparation for Social Interaction 66

Auditory Preparedness for Social Interaction 66

Smell, Taste, and Touch 67

Beyond Faces and Voices: Primed to Be a Social Partner 68

Why Are Babies Prepared? 69

The Neurological Basis of Social Development 69

The Brain 69

Brain Growth and Development 70

Hemispheric Specialization 71

Neurons and Synapses 72

Brain Development and Experience 73

Mirror Neurons and the Social Brain 73

Genetics and Social Development 76

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Genes Determine Your Potential 76

Methods of Studying Genetic Contributions to Development 77

Behavior Genetics: Adoption And Twin Studies 77

Shared and Nonshared Environments 78

Molecular Genetics: The Human Genome Project 78

Models of Genetic Influence 79

The Transmission of Traits: A Basic Model 79

Interactions among Genes 79

Environment Influences Gene Expression 79

Genetic Makeup Helps Shape the Environment 80

Gene–Environment Interactions 81

Gene–Environment Feedback Loops 82

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: A Genetic Risk for Drug Use 83

Genetic Anomalies 83


REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Genetic Counseling, Genetic Selection 86

Temperament: Causes and Consequences 87

Defining and Measuring Temperament 87

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Are Temperaments the Same Around the World? 88

The Biological Basis of Temperament 89

Genetic Factors 89

Neurological Correlates 90

Early Evidence of Temperament 90

Consequences and Correlates of Temperament 90

INTO ADULTHOOD: Shy Children Thirty Years Later 92


Mary K. Rothbart 94

Chapter Summary 94

Key Terms 96

Chapter 4 Attachment: Forming Close Relationships 97

Theories of Attachment 98

Psychoanalytic Theory 98

Learning Theories 98

Cognitive Developmental Theory 99

Ethological Theory 99

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: Maternal Bonding 100

How Attachment Develops 102

Formation and Early Development of Attachment 102

What It Means to Be Attached 102

Attachment to Whom? 103

The Nature and Quality of Attachment 103

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Babies Become Attached to Their Teddy Bears and Blankets 104

Different Types of Attachment Relationships 104

Ainsworth’s Classification of Attachment Types 105

Beyond Ainsworth’s A–B–C Classification 105

Other Strategies for Assessing Attachment 106

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Assessing Attachment in Different Cultures 108

Attachment Types and the Brain 108

Parents’ Role in Infants’ Attachment Development 109

Biological Preparation 109

Link between Caregiving and Attachment 109

Attachment in Family and Community Contexts 111

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Early Experience, Hormones, and Attachment 112

Continuity in Attachment from Parent to Child 113

Attachment of Children in Child Care 114

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Attachment When Mother Goes to Prison 115

Effects of Infant Characteristics on Attachment 116

Stability and Consequences of Attachment 116

Stability and Change in Attachment Over Time 117

Attachments in Older Children 117

Consequences of Attachment 118

Associations with Exploration and Cognitive Development 118

Implications for Social Development 118

Consequences for Self-Esteem 120

Attachments to Both Mother and Father Are Related to Later Development 120

Attachment or Parenting: Which Is Critical for Later Development? 120

INTO ADULTHOOD: From Early Attachment to Later Romantic Relationships 121


L. Alan Sroufe 123

Chapter Summary 124

Key Terms 125

Chapter 5 Emotions: Thoughts About Feelings 126

What Are Emotions? 126

Why Are Emotions Important? 127

Perspectives on Emotional Development 127

Biological Perspective 127

Learning Perspective 128

Functional Perspective 128

Development of Emotions 128

Primary Emotions 129

Joy 129

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . A Smile Is a Smile Is a Smile 131

Fear 133

Anger 135

Sadness 136

Secondary Emotions 136

Pride and Shame 136

Jealousy 137

Guilt 137

Empathy 138

Individual Differences in Emotional Expressiveness 138

Development of Emotional Understanding 139

Recognizing Emotions in Others 139

CULTURAL CONTEXT Expressing and Understanding Emotions in Different Cultures 140

Beyond Recognition: Thinking About Emotions

Matching Emotions to Situations: Emotional Scripts 141

Multiple Emotions, Multiple Causes 141

Emotion Regulation 142

Socialization of Emotion 143

INTO ADULTHOOD: Controlling Negative Emotions in Adulthood 144

Socialization by Parents 144

Socialization by Other Children 147

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Emotional Development in a High School Theater Program 147

Socialization by Teachers 148

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Teachers as Promoters of Emotional Competence 148

When Emotional Development Goes Wrong 149

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: When Children Commit Suicide 150

Causes of Childhood Depression 151

Biological Causes 151

Social Causes 151

Cognitive Causes 151

Treating Childhood Depression 152


Susanne A. Denham 153

Chapter Summary 153

Key Terms 155

Chapter 6 Self and Other: Getting to Know Me, Getting to Know You 156

The Sense of Self 157

Developmental Origins of Self-Concept 157

CULTURAL CONTEXT: How Culture Shapes Self-Representations 159

Difficulty Developing a Sense of Self: Autistic Children 160

Self-Perceptions 160

Global Self-Esteem 160

Domain-Specific Perceptions 161

Learning Self-Appraisal 161

Gender Variations in Global Self-Esteem 162

Social Determinants of Self-Esteem 163

Family Influences 163

Influence of Peers and Mentors 163

Praising Children and Boosting Self-Esteem 163

Identity Formation 164

INTO ADULTHOOD: Identity Formation Continues 166

Ethnic Identity 166

Development of Ethnic Identity 166

Biracial and Bicultural Children And Youth 169

Factors that Promote Ethnic Identity 170

Religious Identity 170

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Sexual Orientation and Identity 171

Development of Knowledge about Others 172

Early Understanding of Intentions and Norms 172

Later Understanding of Mental States: Theory of Mind 172

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: The Brain Beneath Theory of Mind 173

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Babies Are Not Mind Readers 174

Understanding Psychological Trait Labels 175

Perspective Taking 176

Advancing Social Understanding 176

Children’s Abilities 176

Parents’ Influences 176

Siblings and Friends 177

Experiences Outside the Family 177

Cultural Influences 177

Stereotyping and Prejudice 178

Stereotyping 178

Prejudice 178

Determinants of Stereotyping and Prejudice 179

Promoting Stereotypes and Prejudice 179

Can Stereotypes and Prejudice Be Reduced? 180

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: The Most Extreme Prejudice: Genocide 180

Communication Between Me and You: The Role of Language 181

Components of Language 181

Steps Toward Language Fluency 181

Preverbal Communication 181

Babbling and Other Early Sounds 182

Semantic Development: The Power of Words 182

How and Why Children Acquire Words 182

The Acquisition of Grammar: From Words to Sentences 182

Learning the Social Uses of Language 183

The Rules of Pragmatics 183

Learning to Adjust Speech to Audience 183

Learning to Listen Critically 184


Carol S. Dweck 185

Chapter Summary 185

Key Terms 187

Chapter 7 Family: Early and Enduring Influences 188

The Family System 189

The Couple System 189

How Does the Couple’s Relationship Affect Children? 189

Problems When Parents Fight 189

Overcoming These Problems 191

And Baby Makes Three: The Impact of a New Baby on the Couple System 191

INTO ADULTHOOD: Transition to Parenthood 192

The Parent–Child System 193

How Parents Socialize Children 193

Differences in Socialization Approaches 193

Parenting Styles 194

Why Parents Have Different Parenting Styles 196

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Transmission of Hostile Parenting across Generations 197

Socialization: From Bidirectional to Transactional 199

Mothers’ And Fathers’ Parenting 199

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Parenting Is a Brain Drain, Not a Brain Booster 200

The Coparenting System 201

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: When Is a Family Too Large? 202

The Sibling System 202

How Are Siblings Affected by Birth Order? 202

Birth Order and Parent–Child Interactions 203

Birth Order and Sibling Interactions 204

The Family Unit: Stories, Rituals, and Routines 206

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: ‘‘Let’s Have Dinner’’ 207

Family Variation: Social Class and Culture 208

Differences in Family Values and Practices Related to Socioeconomic Status 208

Cultural Patterns in Child Rearing 208

CULTURAL CONTEXT: How Effects of Parenting Vary across Cultures 209

The Changing American Family 211

Parents’ Employment and Child Development 212

Working Mothers 212

Work Stress and Children’s Adjustment 213

Parenting after Thirty 213

New Reproductive Technologies 214

Adoption: Another Route to Parenthood 214

Gay and Lesbian Parents 215

Parenting Alone 216

Divorce and Remarriage 217

Effects of Divorce on Children 217

Who Is Affected Most? 218

Divorce and the Single-Parent Household 219

Does Custody Matter? 220

Remarriage 221


Diana Baumrind 223

Vonnie C. McLoyd 223

Raymond Buriel 224

Chapter Summary 224

Key Terms 226

Chapter 8 Peers: A World of Their Own 227

Definitions and Distinctions 228

Developmental Patterns of Peer Interaction 228

First Encounters in Infancy 228

Social Exchanges between Toddlers 228

Peer Play in Early Childhood 230

Peer Society in the School Years 231

The Importance of the Peer’s Age 232

The Importance of the Peer’s Gender 232

Peer Interactions in Adolescence 232

Peers as Socializers 233

Modeling Behavior 233

Reinforcing and Punishing Behavior 233

Social Comparison 234

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Peer Roles and Relationships in Different Cultures 234

Peer Status 235

Studying Peer Status: Acceptance and Rejection 235

Factors that Affect Peer Acceptance 236

Behaviors that Make a Difference 236

Biological Predispositions 237

Social-Cognitive Skills 237

Are Children Always Reflective? 239

Children’s Goals in Social Interactions 239

Physical Appearance 239

Blending In 240

Consequences of Peer Rejection 241

What Determines How Children React to Rejection? 241

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Names Would Never Hurt You 242

Short- and Long-Term Consequences of Rejection 242

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: When ‘‘Love Thine Enemy’’ Fails 243

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: From Rejection to Revenge? 244

Can Peer Status Change? 245

Promoters of Peer Acceptance 245

Parents as Promoters of Peer Acceptance 245

Parents as Positive Partners 245

Parents as Coaches and Teachers 246

Parents as Social Arrangers and Monitors 247

When Parents Fail: Peer Rejection of Abused Children 248

Researchers as Promoters of Peer Acceptance 248

Peers Can Help Too 250

When Peers Become Friends 250

Age Changes in Friendship 250

Earliest Friendships 250

Changing Friendship Goals 251

Changing Friendship Expectations 251

Interactions with Friends 252

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: When Children Love and Protect Each Other 253

Friendship Patterns 253

The Pros and Cons of Friendship 254

Romantic Relationships 255

Teenage Love Affairs Really Do Matter 255

Changes in Romantic Dynamics Over Time 256

Interaction in Groups 256

Dominance Hierarchies 256

Cliques, Crowds, and Gangs 257

INTO ADULTHOOD: What Happens When Jocks, Brains, and Princesses Grow Up 258



Gary W. Ladd 260

Chapter Summary 261

Key Terms 262

Chapter 9 Schools, Mentors, Media: Connections with Society 263

The Role of the School in Social Development 263

Schools as Social Communities 264

School Size and Organization 264

Big School; Small School 265

Age Groupings in Schools 265

Coeducational versus Same-Sex Schools 266

Class Size and Organization 267

Advantages of Small Classes 267

Benefits of Open Classrooms 267

Cooperative Learning 267

Peer Tutors 268

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Homeschooled Children Were Socially Disadvantaged 268

The Teachers’ Impact 269

Keeping Control: Classroom Discipline and Management 269

Teacher Expectations and Children’s Success 269

Teacher–Student Relationships 270

School–Family Links 270

School Culture; Home Culture 270

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Matching Classroom Organization to Cultural Values and Practices 271

Parents’ Involvement in Schools 272

School as a Buffer for Children 272

School Integration 273

After-School Programs 273

Mentors Supporting Social Development 274

Natural Mentors 275

Mentor Programs 275

Electronic Media and Children’s Social Lives 276

Watching Television and Playing Video Games 276

Hours of Involvement 276

Content of Television Shows and Video Games 278

Do Children Understand What They See? 279

Television’s Positive Effects 280

Negative Effects of Television and Video Games 280

Television Biases Perceptions 280

Television and Video Games Displace Other Activities 280

Television Stereotypes Minority Groups 281

Television Demeans Women 281

Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Aggression 282

Television and Video Game Violence Leads to Desensitization 282

Television and Sexuality 282

Television and Sexualization 282

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Advertising Influences Children’s Choices 283

How Can Parents and Siblings Modify TV’s Negative Effects? 284

INTO ADULTHOOD: Still Playing Games? 285

Internet Connectivity 286

Effects of Internet Involvement 287

Internet Identity 287

Effects on Social Relationships 287

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Role-Playing Games and Social Life 288

Effects of Internet Sex 289

Effects on Mental Health 289

Cell Phone Connections 290

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: The Risks of Sexting 291


Deborah Lowe Vandell 292

Patricia M. Greenfield 292

Chapter Summary 293

Key Terms 295

Chapter 10 Sex and Gender: Vive La Différence? 296

Getting Started: Defining Sex and Gender 296

Gender Stereotypes 297

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Cultural Differences in Gender Stereotypes 298

Gender Differences in Behavior, Interests, and Activities 299

Behavior Differences in Childhood 299

Interests and Activities in Childhood 300

Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 301

Stability of Gender Typing 301

INTO ADULTHOOD: Occupations for Men and Women 302

Sex Differences in Gender Typing 303

Biological Factors in Gender Differences 303

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Gender Identity was Determined by Biological Sex 304

Evolutionary Theory and Gender Development 305

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: The First American Transsexual 305

Hormones and Social Behavior 306

Gender and the Brain 306

Genetics of Gender 308

Biology and Cultural Expectations 308

Cognitive Factors in Gender Typing 309

Cognitive Developmental Theory 309

Gender-Schema Theory: An Information-Processing Approach 310

Comparison of Cognitive Developmental and Gender-Schema Theories 311

Social Influences on Gender Typing 311

Theories of Social Influence 311

Parents’ Influence on Children’s Gender-Typed Choices 312

Parents’ Behavior toward Girls and Boys 312

Behavior with Infants and Toddlers 312

Behavior with Older Children 313

Modeling Parents’ Characteristics 314

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Gender Roles in Counterculture Families 315

When Father Is Absent 316

Siblings as Agents of Gender Socialization 317

Role Models in Books, Games, and Television 317

Peers, Gender Roles, and Gender Segregation 318

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Do Computers Widen the Gender Gap? 319

Schools and Teachers 321

The School Culture 321

Teachers’ Attitudes and Behavior 321

Androgyny 323


Charlotte J. Patterson 325

Chapter Summary 326

Key Terms 328

Chapter 11 Morality: Knowing Right, Doing Good 329

Moral Judgment 330

Piaget’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment 330

Stages of Moral Reasoning 330

Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory 331

Kohlberg’s Cognitive Theory of Moral Judgment 331

Levels and Stages of Moral Judgment 331


Limitations of Kohlberg’s Theory 334

New Aspects Of Moral Development 335

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Justice versus Interpersonal Obligations in India and the United States 336

Turiel’s Social Domain Theory 337

Social-Conventional Domain 337

Psychological Domain 338

Judgments about Complex Issues 338

How Children Learn the Rules and Distinguish between Social Domains 339

Parents’ and Teachers’ Roles in Moral and Social Conventional Reasoning 339

Sibling and Peer Influences on Moral and Conventional Judgments 341

The Role of Culture 341

Moral Behavior 341

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . Moral Judgment Leads to Moral Action 342

Self-Regulation of Behavior 342

Individual Differences in Moral Behavior 343

Consistency of Moral Behavior across Situations and Time 343

INTO ADULTHOOD: The Love of Money Is the Root of All Evil 344

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Children Telling Lies 345

Moral Emotions 347

Development of Moral Emotions 347

Moral Emotions and Child Characteristics 347

Moral Emotions and Parents’ Behavior 347

Do Moral Emotions Affect Moral Behavior? 348

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Adolescents’ Competence to Stand Trial as Adults 349

The Whole Moral Child 350

Prosocial and Altruistic Behavior 351

How Prosocial Behavior and Reasoning Develop 351

Age Changes in Prosocial Behavior 351

Stability in Prosocial Behavior 352

Prosocial Reasoning 352

Are Girls More Prosocial than Boys? 353

Determinants of Prosocial Development 354

Biological Influences 354

Environmental Influences 355

Cultural Influences 356

Empathy and Perspective Taking 356


Grazyna Kochanska 358

Nancy Eisenberg 359

Chapter Summary 359

Key Terms 361

Chapter 12 Aggression: Insult and Injury 362

Types of Aggression 363

Patterns of Aggression 364

Developmental Changes in Aggression 364

Gender Differences in Aggression 366

Stability of Individual Differences in Aggression 368

INTO ADULTHOOD: From Childhood Aggression to Road Rage 369

Causes of Aggression 369

Biological Origins of Aggressive Behavior 370

Genetics and Aggression 370

Temperament and Aggression 370

My Brain Made Me Do It: The Neurological Basis of Aggression 371

Blame It on My Hormones 371

Prenatal Conditions 372

Social Influences on the Development of Aggression 372

Parents as Interactive Partners 372

Abusive Parenting and Aggression 373

A Coercion Model of Aggression 373

Parents as Providers of Opportunities for Aggression 373

The Influence of Peers 374

Neighborhoods as Breeding Grounds 374


Culture as a Determinant of Aggression 377

Violence in the Electronic Media 377

Combined Biological and Social Influences on Aggression 378

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: Genes, Environmental Triggers, and Aggressive Behavior 380

Sociocognitive Factors in the Development of Aggression 381

Bullies and Victims 382

Behavior of Bullies and Victims 382

Consequences of Bullying 384

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Cyberfighting and Cyberbullying 384

Conditions Leading to Bullying 386

Control of Aggression 386

Cognitive Modification Strategies 386

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . You Could Reduce Aggressive Feelings by ‘‘Letting off Steam’’ 387

Parents as Agents for Reducing Aggression 388

Schools as Venues for Intervention 388

Aggression Prevention: A Multipronged Effort 389

Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme 389

Fast Track Project 389

Multisystemic Therapy 390

Cultural Context: Preventing Youth Violence 391


Kenneth A. Dodge 392

Chapter Summary 393

Key Terms 394

Chapter 13 Policy: Improving Children’s Lives 395

What Determines Public Policy for Children? 396

Types of Public Policy 397

Children in Poverty: A Social Policy Challenge 397

Economic Hardship and Social Disadvantage 397

Effects of Poverty on Children 397

Programs to Reverse Effects of Poverty 399

Head Start 399

Welfare Reform Policies 400

Input and Outcome: Getting What You Pay For 401

REAL-WORLD APPLICATION: Early Intervention with Children in Poverty 401

Child Care: A Problem Lacking a Unified Policy 402

Choosing Child Care: What’s a Parent to Do? 402

Types of Child Care 402

Effects of Child Care on Children 403

Quality of Child Care Matters 403

What Is Quality Care? 403

Time in Child Care 404

How Can Policy Help? 404

RESEARCH UP CLOSE: The Florida Child Care Quality Improvement Study 406

Teenage Pregnancy: Children Having Children 407

Factors Leading to Teen Pregnancy 407

BET YOU THOUGHT THAT. . . More Teens Are Having Sex Than Ever Before 408

Outcomes of Teen Pregnancies 408

Problems for Teenage Mothers 408

Problems for Children of Teenage Mothers 408

Problems for Other Family Members 409

Problems for Teenage Fathers 409

Happy Endings 409

INTO ADULTHOOD: When Teen Mothers Grow Up 410

Reducing Teen Pregnancy 410

Support from the Media 410

Sex Education in Schools 411

Support for Teenage Mothers 412

Child Abuse within the Family 413

Child Abuse: A Family Affair 413

The Ecology of Child Abuse 415

Consequences of Abuse 415

Policies to Prevent Abuse 416

CULTURAL CONTEXT: Child Abuse and Children’s Rights 416

Programs that Prevent Abuse 417

Federal and State Policies 418

INSIGHTS FROM EXTREMES: Suggestive Interrogations and Legal Policy 419


Lindsay Chase-Lansdale 421

Kathleen McCartney 422

Kristin Anderson Moore 422

Chapter Summary 423

Key Terms 425

Chapter 14 Overarching Themes: Integrating Social Development 426

What We Know: Some Take-Home Principles 426

Views of the Social Child 426

The Child Is Socially Competent from an Early Age 426

The Child’s Social Behavior Is Organized 427

The Child’s Social Behavior Becomes Increasingly Sophisticated 427

The Child Is Embedded in Levels of Social Complexity 427

Children’s Interactions with Other People Are Reciprocal and Transactional 427

Organization and Explanation of Children’s Social Behavior 428

Aspects of Development Are Interdependent 428

Social Behavior Has Multiple Interacting Causes 428

All Causes Are Important 428

Social Agents and Contexts for Social Development 428

Social Behavior Is Influenced by Social Agents in Social Systems 428

Social Behavior Varies across Both Situations and Individuals 428

Social Development Occurs in a Cultural Context 429

Social Development Occurs in a Historical Context 429

Some Aspects of Social Development Are Universal 429

Progress and Pathways of Social Development 429

Development May Be Gradual and Continuous or Rapid and Dramatic 429

Early Experience Is Important, but Its Effects Are Not Irreversible 429

There Is No Single Pathway to Normal or Abnormal Development 430

Tracing Both Normative Pathways and Individual Pathways Is Important 430

Development Is a Lifelong Process 430

Glimpsing the Future: Methodological, Theoretical, and Policy Imperatives 430

Methodological Imperatives 430

Questions Take Priority Over Methods 430

No Single Method Will Suffice 431

No Single Reporter Will Suffice 431

No Single Sample Will Suffice 431

Theoretical Imperatives 431

No Single Theory Will Suffice 431

No Single Discipline Will Suffice 432

Policy Imperatives 432

Research on Social Development Can Inform Social Policy 432

Social Policy Can Inform Research on Social Development 432

One-Size-Fits-All Social Policies Are Inadequate 432

Social Development Is Everyone’s Responsibility 432

Emerging Leaders in Social Development 433

At the Wedding 439

Glossary 440

References 447

Author Index 541

Subject Index 563

  • Emerging Leaders – In Chapter 14, showcases 17 young scholars who are helping to shape the direction of research and policy in social development.  Combined with the Learning from Living leaders feature, it encourages students to appreciate the ways in research is conducted by real people and gives them some inspirational messages about the research process.
  • A second new feature is the addition of quotes from children and parents (real and hypothetical) have been added to the text and interspersed throughout the book and highlighted in color with the goal illustrating key research findings by showing how they relate to children and families.
  • We have revised Social Development to include the most recent developments in theory, research and policy. The authors have added over 500 new references to their review of the field of social development. In addition the movies accompanying each chapter have been updated
  • This revision includes more description of the ages of the research participants so students can more fully appreciate variations in children’s developmental capabilities.
  • New topics added in this revision including role of religion in development, achievement, natural mentors and mentoring programs, sexualization of children and teens by media exposure.
  • An emphasis on cultural diversity: Each chapter illustrates cultural variations both in the text and in highlighted sections that provide a more detailed examination of a particular culture or cultural issue.
  • An emphasis on biological underpinnings: In the last decade, there has been increased recognition that to understand social development, it is necessary to probe its biological underpinnings. This text devotes a separate chapter to biological influences on social development, and also introduces biological factors in discussions of specific aspects of social development throughout the book.
  • Concern with Social Policy: Every year governments spend millions of dollars on programs for children. Parke & Stewart-Clarke review many of these policies and programs aimed at improving the social lives of children, underscoring the fact that there is a constant interplay between basic research and social policy for children.
  • Throughout the book there are eight highlighted sections addressing contemporary themes and interesting issues in social development. 
    • “Into Adulthood” sections largely focus on social development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. However, because social development does not stop there, these highlights illustrate:
      • how social behavior changes in adulthood,
      • how adult social behavior is influenced by earlier events in childhood, and
      • how adolescents manage the transition to adulthood.
    • “Research Up Close” looks at a single study or set of studies in detail to provide students with a fuller appreciation of the methodological complexities of research on social development.
    • “Real World Application” sections provide examples of how basic science is translated into real-world applications - such as new ways of controlling violence, school programs for improving children’s social skills, and consequences of cyberbullying.  
    • “Cultural Contexts” sections identify descriptions of differences and similarities in children’s temperaments, attachment relationships, and self-concepts around the globe.
    • “Bet You Thought That…” challenges the readers’ assumptions about how social development works by providing counter-intuitive illustrations.
    • “Insights from Extremes” shows how extreme cases have led to insights about social development.
    • “Learning from Living Leaders” puts a face on researchers in the field and shows readers some of the paths that lead to becoming a research leader.
    • “At the Movies” sections describe recent movies that illuminate important themes in each chapter