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Software Maintenance Management: Evaluation and Continuous Improvement

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Software Maintenance Management: Evaluation and Continuous Improvement

Alain April, Alain Abran

ISBN: 978-0-470-25802-6 April 2012 Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Pr 314 Pages

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Description

This book explores the domain of software maintenance management and provides road maps for improving software maintenance organizations. It describes full maintenance maturity models organized by levels 1, 2, and 3, which allow for benchmarking and continuous improvement paths. Goals for each key practice area are also provided, and the model presented is fully aligned with the architecture and framework of software development maturity models of CMMI and ISO 15504. It is complete with case studies, figures, tables, and graphs.

Foreword xiii
Thomas Pigoski

Foreword xv
Ned Chapin

Preface xvii

1 Maintenance Issues and Related Management Approaches 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Issues in Software Maintenance 2

1.2.1 Users’ Perceptions of Software Maintenance Issues 2

1.2.2 Maintainers’ Perceptions of Software Maintenance Issues 4

1.3 Software Maintenance Body of Knowledge 8

1.4 Software Maintenance Definition 10

1.5 Differences Between Operations, Development, and Maintenance 10

1.6 Which Organization is Responsible for Software Maintenance? 15

1.7 Software Maintenance Standards 15

1.8 Software Maintenance Process and Activities 21

1.9 Software Maintenance Categories 23

1.10 Maintenance Measurement 23

1.10.1 Maintenance Process Measurement 23

1.10.2 Software Product Measurement 28

1.11 Service Measurement 29

1.11.1 Internal Service-Level Agreement 30

1.11.2 Maintenance Service Contracts—External Service Agreement 32

1.11.3 Outsourcing Agreements 34

1.12 Software Maintenance Benchmarking 35

1.13 Summary 37

1.14 Exercises 38

2 Maturity Models in Software Engineering 41

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Overview of Basic Concepts (Process and Maturity) 42

2.3 Does CMMi Cover Software Maintenance Adequately? 45

2.4 Difference Between Maturity Model, Quality Standards, and Evaluation Method 46

2.4.1 Choosing Between ISO9001 and CMMi 46

2.4.2 The Evaluation Method 48

2.4.3 Evaluation Types 51

2.5 How is a Maturity Model Designed? 52

2.5.1 The Trillium Design Process 52

2.5.2 ISO 15504 Design Process 54

2.5.3 CMMi for Services Design Process 55

2.5.4 Summary 55

2.6 Initial Validation of a Maturity Model 55

2.6.1 IT Service CMM Model—Initial Validation Approach 56

2.6.2 CM3® Model—Initial Validation Approach 56

2.6.3 ISO 15504 Model—Initial Validation Approach 57

2.6.4 CMMI for Services Model—Initial Validation Approach 57

2.6.5 Maturity Model Validation, Conclusion 57

2.7 What is the Typical Architecture of Maturity Models? 57

2.7.1 CMMi Model Architecture 58

2.7.2 The ISO 15504 (SPICE) Model 60

2.8 An Inventory of Software Engineering Maturity Models 62

2.9 Summary 65

2.10 Exercices 66

3 Foundations of the S3 Process Model 69

3.1 Introduction 69

3.2 Context of Software Maintenance 71

3.3 Proposed Classification of Software Maintenance Processes 73

3.3.1 Software Maintenance Operational Processes 75

3.3.2 Software Maintenance Support Processes 76

3.3.3 Software Maintenance Organizational Processes 76

3.4 Identification of Process Domains and Key Process Areas in Software Maintenance 76

3.5 Summary 81

3.6 Exercises 81

4 Process Management Domain 83

4.1 Overview 83

4.2 Maintenance Process Focus KPA 86

4.2.1 Goals of this KPA 86

4.2.2 Links with Other KPAs 86

4.2.3 Expected Results of this KPA 87

4.3 Maintenance Processes/Services Definition KPA 87

4.3.1 Goals of this KPA 87

4.3.2 Links with Other KPAs 88

4.3.3 Expected Results from this KPA 88

4.4 Maintenance Training KPA 88

4.4.1 Goals of this KPA 89

4.4.2 Links with Other KPAs 89

4.4.3 Expected Results from this KPA 89

4.5 Maintenance Process Performance KPA 90

4.5.1 Goals of this KPA 90

4.5.2 Links with Other KPAs 90

4.5.3 Expected Results from this KPA 91

4.6 Maintenance Innovation and Deployment KPA 91

4.6.1 Goals of this KPA 91

4.6.2 Links with Other KPAs 92

4.6.3 Expected Results from this KPA 92

4.7 Summary 93

4.8 Exercises 93

5 Event/Request Management Domain 95

5.1 Overview 95

5.2 Event/Request Management KPA 97

5.2.1 Goals of this KPA 97

5.2.2 Links with Other KPAs 98

5.2.3 Expected Results from this KPA 98

5.3 Maintenance Planning KPA 98

5.3.1 Goals of this KPA 99

5.3.2 Links with Other KPAs 99

5.3.3 Expected Results from this KPA 100

5.4 Request/Software Monitoring and Control KPA 100

5.4.1 Goals of this KPA 100

5.4.2 Links with Other KPAs 101

5.4.3 Expected Results from this KPA 101

5.5 SLA and Supplier Agreement Management KPA 101

5.5.1 Goals of this KPA 102

5.5.2 Links with Other KPAs 102

5.5.3 Expected Results from this KPA 102

5.6 Summary 103

5.7 Exercises 103

6 Evolution Engineering Domain 107

6.1 Overview 107

6.2 Predelivery and Transition Services KPA 109

6.2.1 Goals of this KPA 109

6.2.2 Links with Other KPAs 110

6.2.3 Expected Results from this KPA 110

6.3 Operational Support Services KPA 111

6.3.1 Goals of this KPA 111

6.3.2 Links with Other KPAs 111

6.3.3 Expected Results from this KPA 111

6.4 Software Evolution and Correction Services KPA 112

6.4.1 Goals of this KPA 112

6.4.2 Links with Other KPAs 113

6.4.3 Expected Results of this KPA 113

6.5 Verification and Validation KPA 113

6.5.1 Goals of this KPA 114

6.5.2 Links with Other KPAs 114

6.2.3 Expected Results of this KPA 114

6.6 Summary 115

6.7 Exercises 115

7 Support for the Evolution Engineering Domain 117

7.1 Overview 117

7.2 Configuration and Version Management KPA 120

7.2.1 Goals of this KPA 121

7.2.2 Links with Other KPAs 121

7.2.3 Expected Results of this KPA 122

7.3 Process, Service, and Software Quality Assurance KPA 122

7.3.1 Goals of this KPA 122

7.3.2 Links with Other KPAs 123

7.3.3 Expected Results of this KPA 123

7.4 Maintenance Measurement and Analysis KPA 123

7.4.1 Goals of this KPA 124

7.4.2 Links with Other KPAs 124

7.4.3 Expected Results of this KPA 124

7.5 Causal Analysis and Problem Resolution KPA 124

7.5.1 Goals of this KPA 125

7.5.2 Links with Other KPAs 125

7.5.3 Expected Results of this KPA 125

7.6 Software Rejuvenation, Migration, and Retirement KPA 125

7.6.1 Goals of this KPA 126

7.6.2 Links with Other KPAs 126

7.6.3 Expected Results of this KPA 126

7.7 Summary 127

7.8 Exercises 127

8 Exemplary Practices—Process Management 129

8.1 Maintenance Process Focus—Detailed Exemplary Practices 130

B.1 Level 0 130

B.1 Level 1 130

B.1 Level 2 131

8.2 Maintenance Process/Service Definition—Detailed Exemplary Practices 135

B.2 Level 0 135

B.2 Level 1 136

B.2 Level 2 136

8.3 Maintenance Training—Detailed Exemplary Practices 138

B.3 Level 0 138

B.3 Level 1 138

B.3 Level 2 139

8.4 Maintenance Process Performance—Detailed Exemplary Practices 144

B.4 Level 0 144

B.4 Level 1 144

B.4 Level 2 145

8.5 Maintenance Innovation and Deployment—Detailed Exemplary Practices 146

B.5 Level 0 146

B.5 Level 1 147

B.5 Level 2 147

9 Exemplary Practices—Event/Request Management Domain 149

9.1 Event/Request Management KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 150

C.1 Level 0 150

C.1 Level 1 150

C.1 Level 2 150

9.2 Maintenance Planning KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 151

C.2 Level 0 151

C.2 Level 1 151

C.2 Level 2 152

9.3 Requests/Software Monitoring and Control KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 159

C.3 Level 0 159

C.3 Level 1 159

C.3 Level 2 159

9.4 SLA and Supplier Agreements Management KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 162

C.4 Level 0 162

C.4 Level 1 162

C.4 Level 2 163

10 Exemplary Practices—Evolution Engineering Domain 169

10.1 Predelivery and Transition to Software Maintenance KPA— Detailed Exemplary Practices 170

D.1 Level 0 170

D.1 Level 1 170

D.1 Level 2 170

10.2 Operational Support Services KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 175

D.2 Level 0 175

D.2 Level 1 175

D.2 Level 2 176

10.3 Software Evolution and Correction Services KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 178

D.3 Level 0 178

D.3 Level 1 178

D.3 Level 2 179

10.4 Verification and Validation KPA—Detailed Exemplary Practices 182

D.4 Level 0 182

D.4 Level 1 182

D.4 Level 2 183

11 Exemplary Practices—Support to Evolution Domain 187

11.1 Configuration and Change Management—Detailed Exemplary Practices 188

E.1 Level 0 188

E.1 Level 1 188

E.1 Level 2 189

11.2 Process, Service, and Software Quality Assurance—Detailed Exemplary Practices 190

E.2 Level 0 191

E.2 Level 1 191

E.2 Level 2 191

11.3 Maintenance Measurement and Analysis—Detailed Exemplary Practices 193

E.3 Level 0 193

E.3 Level 1 194

E.3 Level 2 194

11.4 Causal Analysis and Problem Resolution—Detailed Exemplary Practices 195

E.4 Level 0 195

E.4 Level 1 195

E.4 Level 2 196

11.5 Software Rejuvenation, Migration, and Retirement—Detailed Exemplary Practices 197

E.5 Level 0 197

E.5 Level 1 197

E.5 Level 2 198

12 Assessment Process, Assessment Tool, and Case Studies of the Use of S3 203

12.1 Evaluation Process and Support Tools 203

12.2 Example of Evaluation Results 206

12.3 Four Case Studies Using S3 210

12.3.1 Contributions to the Definition of Software Maintenance 210

12.3.2 Contributions to the Definition of the Service Level Agreement (SLA) 210

12.3.3 Contributions to Software Product Quality Assessment During Predelivery and Transition 211

12.3.4 Contributions to the Improvement of a Very Small Maintenance Function 213

12.4 Summary 221

13 Summary 223

13.1 The Maintenance Issues Revisited 224

13.2 Questions 1 and 2—Is Maintenance a Specific Domain of Software Engineering? 224

13.3 Question 3—Does the CMMi Adequately Address Software Maintenance? 225

13.4 Question 4—What Would the Architecture of a Software Maintenance Maturity Model Look Like? 225

13.5 Question 5—How Can Such a Model be Used in Practice? 225

13.6 Lessons Learned and Contributions 225

13.7 Further Reading 226

Appendix A Maintenance Standards Models and Enhancement Proposal 227

A.1 Software Maintenance Standards 227

Appendix B Term Assignment for Students 231

Appendix C Acronyms and Glossary 235

References 285

Index 301

About the Authors 313

"The book is a fresh approach to an often otherwise dull and boring subject area." (Ubiquity, June 10-16, 2008)