# Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 3rd Edition

# Soil Mechanics and Foundations, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-0-470-91191-4

Feb 2011

752 pages

$64.00

## Description

Soil Mechanics and Foundations 3rd Edition presents the basic concepts and principles of soil mechanics and foundations in the context of basic mechanics, physics, and mathematics. It is appropriate for a single course combining introduction to soil mechanics and foundations, or for a two-course geotechnical engineering sequence.The author presents topics thoroughly and systematically without diluting technical rigor, and gives students confidence in learning the principles of soil mechanics and its application to foundation analysis by clearly defining what they should learn from this text, and providing tools to help them organize and assess their own learning.

Soil Mechanics and Foundations 3rd Edition supports active learning and student self-assessment by defining learning outcomes and objectives, providing questions to guide their reading, definitions of key terms, multimedia supporting self-assessment, and homework exercises defined to target theory, problem-solving, and practical applications. Web-based applications available with the text include interactive animations, interactive problem solving, interactive step-by-step examples, virtual soils laboratory,e-quizzes,and more! The text is written using 100% SI Units.

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### Student

Notes for Students and Instructors.

Notes for Instructors.

**Chapter 1 Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations.**

1.0 Introduction.

1.1 Marvels of Civil Engineering – The Hidden Truth.

1.2 Geotechnical Lessons from Failures.

**Chapter 2 Geological Characteristics of Soils and Particle Sizes of Soils.**

2.0 Introduction.

2.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

2.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

2.3 Basic Geology.

2.4 Composition of Soils.

2.5 Determination of Particle Size of Soils – ASTM D.

2.6 Comparison of Coarse-Grained and Fine-Grained Soils for Engineering Use.

2.7 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Exercises.

**Chapter 3 Soils Investigation.**

3.0 Introduction.

3.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

3.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

3.3 Purposes of a Soils Investigation.

3.4 Phases of a Soils Investigation.

3.5 Soils Exploration Program.

3.6 Soils Report.

3.7 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Exercises.

**Chapter 4 Physical Soil Parameters and Soil Classification.**

4.0 Introduction.

4.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

4.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

4.3 Phase Relationships.

4.4 Physical States and Index Properties of Fine-Grained Soils.

4.5 Determination of the Liquid, Plastic, and Shrinkage Limits.

4.6 Soil Classification Schemes.

4.7 Engineering Use Chart.

4.8 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 5 Soil Compaction.**

5.0 Introduction.

5.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

5.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

5.3 Basic Concept.

5.4 Proctor Compaction Test – ASTM D 1140 and ASTM D 1557.

5.5 Interpretation of Proctor Test Results.

5.6 Benefits of Soil Compaction.

5.7 Field Compaction.

5.8 Compaction Quality Control.

5.9 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Example.

Exercises.

**Chapter 6 One-Dimensional Flow of Water Through Soils.**

6.0 Introduction.

6.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

6.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

6.3 Head and Pressure Variation in a Fluid at Rest.

6.4 Darcy's Law.

6.5 Empirical Relationships for *k*.

6.6 Flow Parallel to Soil Layers.

6.7 Flow Normal to Soil Layers.

6.8 Equivalent Hydraulic Conductivity.

6.9 Determination of the Hydraulic Conductivity.

6.10 Groundwater Lowering by Wellpoints.

6.11 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Example.

Exercises.

**Chapter 7 Stresses, Strains, and Elastic Deformations of Soils.**

7.0 Introduction.

7.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

7.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

7.3 Stresses and Strains.

7.4 Idealized Stress-Strain Response and Yielding.

7.5 Hooke's Law

7.6 Plane Strain and Axial Symmetric Conditions.

7.7 Anisotropic, Elastic States.

7.8 Stress and Strain States.

7.9 Total and Effective Stresses.

7.10 Lateral Earth Pressure at Rest.

7.11 Stresses in Soil from Surface Loads.

7.12 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 8 Stress Path.**

8.0 Introduction.

8.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

8.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

8.3 Stress and Strain Invariants.

8.4 Stress Paths.

8.5 Summary

Self-Assessment.

Practical Example.

Exercises.

**Chapter 9 One-Dimensional Consolidation Settlement of Fine-Grained Soils.**

9.0 Introduction.

9.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

9.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

9.3 Basic Concepts.

9.4 Calculation of Primary Consolidation.

9.5 One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory.

9.6 Secondary Compression Settlement.

9.7 One-Dimensional Consolidation Laboratory Test.

9.8 Relationship Between Laboratory and Field Consolidation.

9.9 Typical Values of Consolidation.

9.10 Preconsolidation of Soils Using Wick Drains.

9.11 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 10 Shear Strength of Soils.**

10.0 Introduction.

10.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

10.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

10.3 Typical Response of Soils to Shearing Forces.

10.4 Four Models for Interpreting the Shear Strength of Soils.

10.5 Practical Implications of Failure Criteria.

10.6 Interpretation of the Shear Strength of Soils.

10.7 Laboratory Tests to Determine Shear Strength Parameters.

10.8 Porewater Pressure Under Axisymmetric Undrained Loading.

10.9 Other Laboratory Devices to Measure Shear Strength.

10.10 Field Tests.

10.11 Specifying Laboratory Strength Tests.

10.12 Empirical Relationships for Shear Strength Parameters.

10.13 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 11 A Critical State Model to Interpret Soil Behavior.**

11.0 Introduction.

11.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

11.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

11.3 Basic Concepts.

11.4 Elements of the Critical State Model.

11.5 Failure Stresses from the Critical State Model.

11.6 Modifications of CSM and Their Practical Implications.

11.7 Relationships from CSM that Are of Practical Significance.

11.8 Soil Stiffness.

11.9 Strains from the Critical State Model.

11.10 Calculated Stress-Strain Response.

11.11 Applications of CSM to Cemented Soils.

11.12 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 12 Bearing Capacity of Soils and Settlement of Shallow Foundations.**

12.0 Introduction.

12.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

12.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

12.3 Allowable Stress and Load and Resistance Factor Design.

12.4 Basic Concepts.

12.5 Collapse Load Using the Limit Equilibrium Method.

12.6 Bearing Capacity Equations.

12.7 Mat Foundations.

12.8 Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils.

12.9 Building codes Bearing Capacity Values.

12.10 Settlement.

12.11 Settlement Calculations.

12.12 Determination of Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Coarse-Grained Soils from Field Tests.

12.13 Shallow Foundation Analysis Using CSM.

12.14 Horizontal Elastic Displacement and Rotation.

12.15 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 13 Pile Foundations.**

13.0 Introduction.

13.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

13.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

13.3 Types of Piles and Installations.

13.4 Basic Concept.

13.5 Load Capacity of Single Piles.

13.6 Pile Load Test (ASTM D 1143).

13.7 Methods Using Statics for Driven Piles.

13.8 Pile Load Capacity of Driven Piles Based on SPT and CPT Results.

13.9 Load Capacity of Drilled Shafts.

13.10 Pile Groups.

13.11 Elastic Settlement of Piles.

13.12 Consolidation Settlement Under a Pile Group.

13.13 Procedure to Estimate Settlement of Single and Group Piles.

13.14 Settlement of Drilled Shafts.

13.15 Piles Subjected to Negative Skin Friction.

13.16 Pile-Driving Formulas and Wave Equation.

13.17 Laterally Loaded Piles.

13.18 Micropiles.

13.19 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 14 Two-Dimensional Flow of Water Through Soils.**

14.0 Introduction.

14.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

14.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

14.3 Two-Dimensional Flow of Water Through Porous Media.

14.4 Flownet Sketching.

14.5 Interpretation of Flownet.

14.6 Finite Difference Solution for Two-Dimensional Flow.

14.7 Flow Through Earth Dams.

14.8 Soil Filtration.

14.9 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 15 Stability of Earth Retaining Structures.**

15.0 Introduction.

15.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

15.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

15.3 Basic Concepts of Lateral Earth Pressures.

15.4 Coulomb's Earth Pressure Theory.

15.5 Rankine's Lateral Earth Pressure for a Sloping Backfill and a Sloping Wall Face.

15.6 Lateral Earth Pressures for a Total Stress Analysis.

15.7 Application of Lateral Earth Pressures to Retaining Walls.

15.8 Types of Retaining Walls and Modes of Failure.

15.9 Stability of Rigid Retaining Walls.

15.10 Stability of Flexible Retaining Walls.

15.11 Brace Excavation.

15.12 Mechanical Stabilized Earth Walls.

15.13 Other Types of Retaining Walls.

15.14 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Examples.

Exercises.

**Chapter 16 Slope Stability.**

16.0 Introduction.

16.1 Definitions of Key Terms.

16.2 Questions to Guide Your Reading.

16.3 Some Types of Slope Failure.

16.4 Some Causes of Slope Failure.

16.5 Infinite Slopes.

16.6 Two-Dimensional Slope Stability Analyses.

16.7 Rotational Slope Failures.

16.8 Method of Slices.

16.9 Application of the Method of Slices.

16.10 Procedure for the Method of Slices.

16.11 Stability of Slopes with Simple Geometry.

16.12 Factor of Safety (FS).

16.13 Summary.

Self-Assessment.

Practical Example.

Exercises.

**Appendix A** A Collection of Frequently Used Soil Parameters and Correlations.

**Appendix B** Distribution of Vertical Stress and Elastic Displacement Under a Uniform Circular Load.

**Appendix C** Distribution of Surface Stresses within Finite Soil Layers.

**Appendix D** Lateral Earth Pressure Coefficients (Kerisel and ABSI, 1990).

References.

Index.

- Reorganization of chapters—Several chapters have been divided, with specific topics expanded into separate chapters to improve ease of use and make the topics more digestible for students.
- Soils Investigation Chapter 3 is now a chapter in itself, as is Soil Compaction Chapter 5, and Stress Path Chapter 8.
- Updated and revised to enhance clarity—The content of each chapter has been enhanced by adding updated material and more explanations. In particular, significant improvements have been made not only to interpret soil behavior but in applying the basic concepts to practical problems.
- Examples and problems—More examples with more practical “real-world” situations, and more problems have been added.

- Builds on Student Background FROM PREREQUISITES: Basic concepts and fundamental principles of soil mechanics and foundations are presented in a simple pedagogy using the students' background in mechanics, physics and mathematics, reinforcing the connection of this material to students’ previous courses.
- Pedagogy incorporates modern learning theory: Clearly defines for students what they should learn from this text, and provides tools to help them organize and assess their own learning, with learning outcomes and objectives, questions to guide their reading, definitions of key terms, multimedia supporting self-assessment, and homework exercises defined to target theory, problem-solving, and practical applications.
- Supports Active Learning and Student Self-Assessment: Web-based applications including interactive animations, interactive problem solving, interactive step-by-step examples, virtual soils laboratory, e-quizzes, and much more are integrated with this textbook.
- Thorough and Systematic: Topics are presented thoroughly and systematically to elucidate the basic concepts and fundamental principles without diluting technical rigor.
- Example problems present strategy: A large number of example problems are solved to demonstrate or to provide further insights of the basic concepts and applications of fundamental principles. The solution of each example is preceded by a strategy, which is intended to teach students to think about possible steps before they jump in to solving it. Each solution provides a step-by-step outline for readers.
- Geological characteristics of soils: Chapter 2 on basic geology provides background linking geology and soil mechanics, for those students who have not taken a geology course, or would like to review this topic.
- SI units throughout.