# Solid State Physics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

# Solid State Physics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-3-527-68206-5 April 2015 264 Pages

**E-Book**

$56.99

## Description

A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics.This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t follow all the mathematical detail.

The revised edition has been carefully updated to present an up-to-date account of the essential topics and recent developments in this exciting field of physics. The coverage now includes ground-breaking materials with high relevance for applications in communication and energy, like graphene and topological insulators, as well as transparent conductors.

The text assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems, with solutions free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. The author's webpage provides Online Notes on x-ray scattering, elastic constants, the quantum Hall effect, tight binding model, atomic magnetism, and topological insulators.

This new edition includes the following updates and new features:

* Expanded coverage of mechanical properties of solids, including an improved discussion of the yield stress

* Crystal structure, mechanical properties, and band structure of graphene

* The coverage of electronic properties of metals is expanded by a section on the quantum hall effect including exercises. New topics include the tight-binding model and an expanded discussion on Bloch waves.

* With respect to semiconductors, the discussion of solar cells has been extended and improved.

* Revised coverage of magnetism, with additional material on atomic magnetism

* More extensive treatment of finite solids and nanostructures, now including topological insulators

* Recommendations for further reading have been updated and increased.

* New exercises on Hall mobility, light penetrating metals, band structure

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Preface of the First Edition XI

Preface of the Second Edition XIII

Physical Constants and Energy Equivalents XV

**1 Crystal Structures 1**

1.1 General Description of Crystal Structures 2

1.2 Some Important Crystal Structures 4

1.2.1 Cubic Structures 4

1.2.2 Close-Packed Structures 5

1.2.3 Structures of Covalently Bonded Solids 6

1.3 Crystal Structure Determination 7

1.3.1 X-Ray Diffraction 7

1.3.1.1 Bragg Theory 7

1.3.1.2 Lattice Planes and Miller Indices 8

1.3.1.3 General Diffraction Theory 9

1.3.1.4 The Reciprocal Lattice 11

1.3.1.5 The Meaning of the Reciprocal Lattice 12

1.3.1.6 X-Ray Diffraction from Periodic Structures 14

1.3.1.7 The Ewald Construction 15

1.3.1.8 Relation Between Bragg and Laue Theory 16

1.3.2 Other Methods for Structural Determination 17

1.3.3 Inelastic Scattering 17

1.4 Further Reading 18

1.5 Discussion and Problems 18

**2 Bonding in Solids 23**

2.1 Attractive and Repulsive Forces 23

2.2 Ionic Bonding 24

2.3 Covalent Bonding 25

2.4 Metallic Bonding 28

2.5 Hydrogen Bonding 29

2.6 van derWaals Bonding 29

2.7 Further Reading 30

2.8 Discussion and Problems 30

**3 Mechanical Properties 33**

3.1 Elastic Deformation 35

3.1.1 Macroscopic Picture 35

3.1.1.1 Elastic Constants 35

3.1.1.2 Poisson’s Ratio 36

3.1.1.3 Relation between Elastic Constants 37

3.1.2 Microscopic Picture 37

3.2 Plastic Deformation 38

3.2.1 Estimate of the Yield Stress 39

3.2.2 Point Defects and Dislocations 41

3.2.3 The Role of Defects in Plastic Deformation 41

3.3 Fracture 43

3.4 Further Reading 44

3.5 Discussion and Problems 45

**4 Thermal Properties of the Lattice 47**

4.1 Lattice Vibrations 47

4.1.1 A Simple Harmonic Oscillator 47

4.1.2 An Infinite Chain of Atoms 48

4.1.2.1 One Atom Per Unit Cell 48

4.1.2.2 The First Brillouin Zone 51

4.1.2.3 Two Atoms per Unit Cell 52

4.1.3 A Finite Chain of Atoms 53

4.1.4 Quantized Vibrations, Phonons 55

4.1.5 Three-Dimensional Solids 57

4.1.5.1 Generalization to Three Dimensions 57

4.1.5.2 Estimate of the Vibrational Frequencies from the Elastic Constants 58

4.2 Heat Capacity of the Lattice 60

4.2.1 ClassicalTheory and Experimental Results 60

4.2.2 Einstein Model 62

4.2.3 Debye Model 63

4.3 Thermal Conductivity 67

4.4 Thermal Expansion 70

4.5 Allotropic Phase Transitions and Melting 71

References 74

4.6 Further Reading 74

4.7 Discussion and Problems 74

**5 Electronic Properties ofMetals: Classical Approach 77**

5.1 Basic Assumptions of the Drude Model 77

5.2 Results from the Drude Model 79

5.2.1 DC Electrical Conductivity 79

5.2.2 Hall Effect 81

5.2.3 Optical Reflectivity of Metals 82

5.2.4 TheWiedemann–Franz Law 85

5.3 Shortcomings of the Drude Model 86

5.4 Further Reading 87

5.5 Discussion and Problems 87

**6 Electronic Properties of Solids: Quantum Mechanical Approach 91**

6.1 The Idea of Energy Bands 92

6.2 Free Electron Model 94

6.2.1 The Quantum Mechanical Eigenstates 94

6.2.2 Electronic Heat Capacity 99

6.2.3 TheWiedemann–Franz Law 100

6.2.4 Screening 101

6.3 The General Form of the Electronic States 103

6.4 Nearly Free Electron Model 106

6.5 Tight-binding Model 111

6.6 Energy Bands in Real Solids 116

6.7 Transport Properties 122

6.8 Brief Review of Some Key Ideas 126

References 127

6.9 Further Reading 127

6.10 Discussion and Problems 127

**7 Semiconductors 131**

7.1 Intrinsic Semiconductors 132

7.1.1 Temperature Dependence of the Carrier Density 134

7.2 Doped Semiconductors 139

7.2.1 n and p Doping 139

7.2.2 Carrier Density 141

7.3 Conductivity of Semiconductors 144

7.4 Semiconductor Devices 145

7.4.1 The pn Junction 145

7.4.2 Transistors 150

7.4.3 Optoelectronic Devices 151

7.5 Further Reading 155

7.6 Discussion and Problems 155

**8 Magnetism 159**

8.1 Macroscopic Description 159

8.2 Quantum Mechanical Description of Magnetism 161

8.3 Paramagnetism and Diamagnetism in Atoms 163

8.4 Weak Magnetism in Solids 166

8.4.1 Diamagnetic Contributions 167

8.4.1.1 Contribution from the Atoms 167

8.4.1.2 Contribution from the Free Electrons 167

8.4.2 Paramagnetic Contributions 168

8.4.2.1 Curie Paramagnetism 168

8.4.2.2 Pauli Paramagnetism 170

8.5 Magnetic Ordering 171

8.5.1 Magnetic Ordering and the Exchange Interaction 172

8.5.2 Magnetic Ordering for Localized Spins 174

8.5.3 Magnetic Ordering in a Band Picture 178

8.5.4 Ferromagnetic Domains 180

8.5.5 Hysteresis 181

References 182

8.6 Further Reading 183

8.7 Discussion and Problems 183

**9 Dielectrics 187**

9.1 Macroscopic Description 187

9.2 Microscopic Polarization 189

9.3 The Local Field 191

9.4 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 192

9.4.1 Excitation of Lattice Vibrations 192

9.4.2 Electronic Transitions 196

9.5 Other Effects 197

9.5.1 Impurities in Dielectrics 197

9.5.2 Ferroelectricity 198

9.5.3 Piezoelectricity 199

9.5.4 Dielectric Breakdown 200

9.6 Further Reading 200

9.7 Discussion and Problems 201

**10 Superconductivity 203**

10.1 Basic Experimental Facts 204

10.1.1 Zero Resistivity 204

10.1.2 The Meissner Effect 207

10.1.3 The Isotope Effect 209

10.2 SomeTheoretical Aspects 210

10.2.1 Phenomenological Theory 210

10.2.2 Microscopic BCSTheory 212

10.3 Experimental Detection of the Gap 218

10.4 Coherence of the Superconducting State 220

10.5 Type I and Type II Superconductors 222

10.6 High-Temperature Superconductivity 224

10.7 Concluding Remarks 226

References 227

10.8 Further Reading 227

10.9 Discussion and Problems 227

**11 Finite Solids and Nanostructures 231**

11.1 Quantum Confinement 232

11.2 Surfaces and Interfaces 234

11.3 Magnetism on the Nanoscale 237

11.4 Further Reading 238

11.5 Discussion and Problems 239

**Appendix A 241**

A.1 Explicit Forms of Vector Operations 241

A.2 Differential Form of the Maxwell Equations 242

A.3 Maxwell Equations in Matter 243

Index 245

* Expanded coverage of mechanical properties of solids (3), including an improved discussion of the yield stress

* Crystal structure, mechanical properties, and band structure of graphene

* The coverage of electronic properties of metals (5, 6) is expanded by a section on the quantum hall effect including exercises. New topics include the tight-binding model and an expanded discussion on Bloch waves.

* With respect to semiconductors (7), the discussion of solar cells has been extended and improved.

* Revised coverage of magnetism (8), with additional material on atomic magnetism

* More extensive treatment of finite solids and nanostructures (11), now including topological insulators

* Recommendations for further reading have been updated and increased.

* New exercises on Hall mobility, light penetrating metals, band structure

* Online Notes on x-ray scattering, elastic constants, the quantum Hall effect, tight binding model, atomic magnetism, and topological insulators

B. Jacoby, European Journal of Physics 30, 919