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Specs: The Foodservice and Purchasing Specification Manual, Student Edition

Specs: The Foodservice and Purchasing Specification Manual, Student Edition

Lewis Reed

ISBN: 978-0-471-69695-7

Oct 2005

216 pages

Select type: Hardcover

In Stock



SPECS: The Foodservice and Purchasing Specification Manual, Student Edition contains information on purchasing policies, foods, quality controls, and storage and handling procedures. It is designed as a reference manual for the standards by which food is measured, specified for purchase, and inspected upon delivery to assure that the foodservice operation is getting the value it is paying for.  SPECS has been updated to become even more practical for daily use so that readers can easily find the information they need.  This must-have reference also includes discussion of the theory behind specifications, including why they are needed and who develops and uses them.  The perfect resource for purchasing courses, SPECS provides readers with the decision-making skills they need in the area of quality, quantity, specifications, and the general value analysis of the purchasing function.

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CHAPTER 1. Purchasing Policies.


What Are Specifications?

How to Use Specifications.

The Purchasing Function: What Is It?

How to Write a Purchasing Manual.

What to Charge?

Determining Pricing.

Purchasing Systems.

Selecting Sources.

Systems Contracting.

One-Stop Shopping.

Cooperative Buying.

Techniques for Purchasing Food.

Constructive Procedures.

An Uncomplicated Accounting System.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 2. Fruits, Fresh and Processed.

Writing the Specifications.

Fresh Produce.

Specialized Production.



Temperature Control.


Restaurants and Mass-Feeding Institutions.

Waste and Loss.

Standard Grades and Inspection.


Voluntary Grading.

Compulsory Grading.

Inspection Procedure.

Grade, Condition, and Quality.



Adequate Care.



Varietal Distinctions.



Partially Prepared Vegetables.

Handling Care.

Sample Specifications for Fruits—Fresh and Processed.

Dwarf Rootstocks.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 3. Vegetables.

Sample Specifications for Vegetables.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 4. Dairy Products.

Milk and Milk Products.



Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 5. Eggs.

Structure, Composition, and Formation of the Egg.


Shell Color.

General Standards.

General Quality Factors.

Exterior Quality Factors.

Classification of Interior Quality.

Loss Eggs.

U.S. Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs.

U.S. Consumer Grades and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs.

U.S. Wholesale Grades and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs.

U.S. Nest-Run Grade and Weight Classes for Shell Eggs.

Egg Standards.

How to Buy Shell Eggs.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 6. Poultry.

Standards and Grades 83

Official Identification by Graders Licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


The Poultry Division.

Poultry Eligible for Grading.

Poultry Inspection.

Marks on Consumer Containers.

Marks on Shipping Containers.

Grading According to Quality Standards and Grades.

Examining Carcasses and Parts to Determine Quality.

Cutting Poultry Parts.

Standards for Quality of Ready-to-Cook Individual Carcasses and Parts.

Standards for Quality of Specified Poultry Food Products.

U.S. Consumer Grades for Ready-to-Cook Poultry and Specified Poultry Food Products.

U.S. Procurement Grades for Ready-to-Cook Poultry.

Grading According to Special Requirements.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 7. Fish.

Packed under Federal Inspection .


Product Description.

Market Forms of Fish.

Categories of Cuts and Shapes of Prepared Fish.

Frozen Fish.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 8. Meat.

Meat in the Foodservice Budget.

Composition and Structure.




Meat Buying Know-How.




Meat Conformation.




Cutability or Yield Grading.

Cut It, or Buy It Cut?

How Much to Order?

How Much to Pay?

How Much to Charge?

What Is the Cost?

Writing Meat Specifications.

Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications General Requirements.


Ordering Data.


State of Refrigeration.

Packaging and Packing.


Waivers and Amendments to Specifications Requirements.

Institution Inspection.

Institution Meat Purchase Specifications General Requirements.


Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 9. Religious Dietary Laws.



Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 10. Convenience Foods.

Evaluating a Convenience Food Program.

Handling Convenience Foods.

Code of Recommended Practices for the Handling of Frozen Foods.

Sample Meat Products Specification.

Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 11.  Miscellaneous Groceries.

Salad Dressings.

Fats and Oils.


Internet Resources.

CHAPTER 12.   Storage and Handling.

Quality Loss and Spoilage.

Receiving Control.

Dry Storage Control.

Internet Resources.


Appendix A.  Quality Controls and Federal Regulations.

What Is Quality?

Determining Standards and Specifications.

Important Quality “Inspection Check” Factors.

USDA Food Standards Divisions.

Appendix B. Food Purchasing Guide.

Explanation of Industry Terms.

Appendix C. Purchase Specifications.


  • Designed as a ready reference to the standards by which foods are measured, purchased and inspected
  • Includes a section on food trends, including low carbs, reading labels, consumer awareness, and how this impacts customer eating habits
  • Contains information on purchasing policies, foods, quality controls, and storage and handling procedures
  • Promotes the use of exacting standards in foodservice purchasing
  • Enables the reader to differentiate between ""high"" and ""low"" quality products
  • Includes a detailed chapter on developing a purchasing system, complete with sample forms for bids, ordering, receiving and issuing
  • Appendices includes quality controls and federal regulations, food purchasing guide and purchase specifications