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Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications

Hiroyuki Fujiwara

ISBN: 978-0-470-06019-3

Oct 2007

388 pages


Ellipsometry is a powerful tool used for the characterization of thin films and multi-layer semiconductor structures. This book deals with fundamental principles and applications of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Beginning with an overview of SE technologies the text moves on to focus on the data analysis of results obtained from SE, Fundamental data analyses, principles and physical backgrounds and the various materials used in different fields from LSI industry to biotechnology are described. The final chapter describes the latest developments of real-time monitoring and process control which have attracted significant attention in various scientific and industrial fields.



1 Introduction to Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

1.1 Features of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

1.2 Applications of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

1.3 Data Analysis.

1.4 History of Development.

1.5 Future Prospects.


2 Principles of Optics.

2.1 Propagation of Light.

2.2 Dielectrics.

2.3 Reflection and Transmission of Light.

2.4 Optical Interference.


3 Polarization of Light.

3.1 Representation of Polarized Light.

3.2 Optical Elements.

3.3 Jones Matrix.

3.4 Stokes Parameters.


4 Principles of Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

4.1 Principles of Ellipsometry Measurement.

4.2 Ellipsometry Measurement.

4.3 Instrumentation for Ellipsometry.

4.4 Precision and Error of Measurement.


5 Data Analysis.

5.1 Interpretation of (Ψ, Δ).

5.2 Dielectric Function Models.

5.3 Effective Medium Approximation.

5.4 Optical Models.

5.5 Data Analysis Procedure.


6 Ellipsometry of Anisotropic Materials.

6.1 Reflection and Transmission of Light by Anisotropic Materials.

6.2 Fresnel Equations for Anisotropic Materials.

6.3 4×4 Matrix Method.

6.4 Interpretation of (Ψ, Δ) for Anisotropic Materials.

6.5 Measurement and Data Analysis of Anisotropic Materials.


7 Data Analysis Examples.

7.1 Insulators.

7.2 Semiconductors.

7.3 Metals/Semiconductors.

7.4 Organic Materials/Biomaterials.

7.5 Anisotropic Materials.


8 Real-Time Monitoring by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

8.1 Data Analysis in Real-Time Monitoring.

8.2 Observation of Thin-Film Growth by Real-Time Monitoring.

8.3 Process Control by Real-Time Monitoring.



1 Trigonometric Functions.

2 Definitions of Optical Constants.

3 Maxwell’s Equations for Conductors.

4 Jones–Mueller Matrix Conversion.

5 Kramers–Kronig Relations.