1. From Early Beginnings to the 20th Century.
Hooke’s Law and the Engineering Analogy.
The 18th Century and Beyond.
Summary of Themes from the 18th and 19th Century.
2. The 20th Century – The Early Years.
The Emergence of the School of Functionalism.
Fatigue and Mental Hygiene.
Psychosomatic Medicine and the contribution of Walter Cannon.
The Concept of Non-Specificity.
General Adaptation Syndrome.
Eustress, Distress, Overstress and Hyperstress.
Physiological Aspects of Stress.
The Work of Harold Wolff.
The Protective Reaction.
Summary of the First half of the 20th Century.
3. From the 1950s to Richard Lazarus.
Stress in the 1950s and 1960s.
Stressful Life Events.
The Social Readjustment Scale.
Daily Hassles and Uplifts and the Debate that Followed.
The Debate: Critical Life Events Versus Hassles and Uplifts.
Personality and Type A Behavior Patterns.
Towards the Study of Individual Differences.
A Return to the 1950s and 1960s and a change in Focus.
The History of Stress in Sweden.
The Origins of Organizational Psychology.
The Rise of Ergonomics/Human Factors.
4. The Work of Richard Lazarus.
The Berkeley Stress and Coping Project.
A Historical Look at Appraisal.
The Nature of Appraisals and the debate that Followed.
Lazarus and the process of Coping.
Ways of Coping Questionnaire.
Lazarus and Emotions.
5. Work Stress and Occupational Health Psychology.
Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and the Search for Causes of Work Stress.
Beyond Role Conflict, Ambiguity and Overload.
Early Research Frameworks and Identifying Strains.
Toward an Integrated Model of Work Stress.
Work Stress and Coping.
From Coping to the Self Help Years to Stress Management.
Occupational Health Psychology.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
6. What Do We Mean by Stress: From the Past to the Future.
From the Past to the Future.
What does History add to Our Understanding of Stress?.
Searching for the Organizing Concept of the future.
Distinguishing Between Description and Meaning.
Why Stress? Fulfilling Our moral Responsibility.