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Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment, 3rd Edition

Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment, 3rd Edition

Maan H. Jawad, James R. Farr

ISBN: 978-1-119-10283-0

Jul 2018

480 pages

Description

Still the only book offering comprehensive coverage of the analysis and design of both API equipment and ASME pressure vessels

This edition of the classic guide to the analysis and design of process equipment has been thoroughly updated to reflect current practices as well as the latest ASME Codes and API standards.  In addition to covering the code requirements governing the design of process equipment, the book supplies structural, mechanical, and chemical engineers with expert guidance to the analysis and design of storage tanks, pressure vessels, boilers, heat exchangers, and related process equipment and its associated external and internal components. 

The use of process equipment, such as storage tanks, pressure vessels, and heat exchangers has expanded considerably over the last few decades in both the petroleum and chemical industries. The extremely high pressures and temperatures involved with the processes for which the equipment is designed makes it potentially very dangerous to property and life if the equipment is not designed and manufactured to an exacting standard. Accordingly, codes and standards such as the ASME and API were written to assure safety. Still the only guide covering the design of both API equipment and ASME pressure vessels, Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment, 3rd Edition:

  • Covers the design of rectangular vessels with various side thicknesses and updated equations for the design of heat exchangers
  • Now includes numerical vibration analysis needed for earthquake evaluation
  • Relates the requirements of the ASME codes to international standards
  • Describes, in detail, the background and assumptions made in deriving many design equations underpinning the ASME and API standards
  • Includes methods for designing components that are not covered in either the API or ASME, including ring girders, leg supports, and internal components
  • Contains procedures for calculating thermal stresses and discontinuity analysis of various components

Structural Analysis and Design of Process Equipment, 3rd Edition is an indispensable tool-of-the-trade for mechanical engineers and chemical engineers working in the petroleum and chemical industries, manufacturing, as well as plant engineers in need of a reference for process equipment in power plants, petrochemical facilities, and nuclear facilities. 

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Preface to the Third Edition xv

Preface to the Second Edition xvii

Preface to the First Edition xix

Acknowledgements xxi

Part I Background and Basic Considerations 1

1 History and Organization of Codes 4

1.1 Use of Process Vessels and Equipment 4

1.2 History of Pressure Vessel Codes in the United States 4

1.3 Organization of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 6

1.4 Organization of the ANSI B31 Code for Pressure Piping 6

1.5 Some Other Pressure Vessel Codes and Standards in the United States 6

1.6 Worldwide Pressure Vessel Codes 7

References 7

Further Reading 7

2 Selection of Vessel, Specifications, Reports, and Allowable Stresses 10

2.1 Selection of Vessel 10

2.2 Which Pressure Vessel Code is Used 10

2.3 Design Specifications and Purchase Orders 10

2.4 Special Design Requirements 11

2.5 Design Reports and Calculations 11

2.6 Materials Specifications 11

2.7 Design Data for New Materials 11

2.8 Factors of Safety 12

2.9 Allowable Tensile Stresses in the ASME Code 12

2.10 Allowable External Pressure Stress and Axial Compressive Stress in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 13

2.11 Allowable Stresses in the ASME Code for Pressure Piping 14

2.12 Allowable Stress in Other Codes of theWorld 14

2.12.1 European Union (EN) Countries 14

2.12.2 Japanese Code 15

2.12.3 People’s Republic of China 15

2.12.4 Indian Code 15

2.12.5 Australian Code 16

References 16

3 Strength Theories, Design Criteria, and Design Equations 18

3.1 Strength Theories 18

3.2 Design Criteria 18

3.3 Design Equations 19

3.4 Stress–Strain Relationships 19

3.5 Strain–Deflection Equations 20

3.6 Force–Stress Expressions 22

References 23

Further Reading 23

4 Materials of Construction 26

4.1 Material Selection 26

4.1.1 Corrosion 26

4.1.2 Strength 26

4.1.2.1 Specified Minimum Yield Stress 27

4.1.2.2 Specified Minimum Tensile Stress 28

4.1.2.3 Creep Rate 28

4.1.2.4 Rupture Strength 28

4.1.3 Material Cost 30

4.2 Nonferrous Alloys 31

4.2.1 Aluminum Alloys 31

4.2.1.1 Annealing 31

4.2.1.2 Normalizing 31

4.2.1.3 Solution Heat Treating 31

4.2.1.4 Stabilizing 31

4.2.1.5 Strain Hardening 31

4.2.1.6 Thermal Treating 32

4.2.2 Copper and Copper Alloys 32

4.2.3 Nickel and High-Nickel Alloys 32

4.2.4 Titanium and Zirconium Alloys 33

4.3 Ferrous Alloys 34

4.3.1 Carbon Steels 34

4.3.2 Low-Alloy Steels 34

4.3.3 High-Alloy Steels 34

4.3.3.1 Martensitic Stainless Steels 34

4.3.3.2 Ferritic Stainless Steels 34

4.3.3.3 Austenitic Stainless Steels 34

4.4 Heat Treating of Steels 35

4.4.1 Normalizing 35

4.4.2 Annealing 35

4.4.3 Postweld Heat Treating 35

4.4.4 Quenching 35

4.4.5 Tempering 35

4.5 Brittle Fracture 35

4.5.1 Charpy V-Notch Test (Cv) 36

4.5.2 Drop-Weight Test (DWT) 37

4.5.3 Fracture Analysis Diagram (FAD) 37

4.5.4 Theory of Fracture Mechanics 39

4.5.5 Relationship Between KIC and CV 41

4.5.6 Hydrostatic Testing 42

4.5.7 Factors Influencing Brittle Fracture 42

4.5.8 ASME Pressure Vessel Criteria 43

4.6 Hydrogen Embrittlement 50

4.7 Nonmetallic Vessels 50

References 50

Further Reading 51

Part II Analysis of Components 53

5 Stress in Cylindrical Shells 56

5.1 Stress Due to Internal Pressure 56

5.2 Discontinuity Analysis 60

5.2.1 Long Cylinders 61

5.2.2 Short Cylinders 66

5.3 Buckling of Cylindrical Shells 69

5.3.1 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides Only 70

5.3.2 Uniform Pressure Applied to Sides and Ends 71

5.3.3 Pressure on Ends Only 72

5.4 Thermal Stress 72

5.4.1 Uniform Change in Temperature 75

5.4.2 Gradient in Axial Direction 76

5.4.3 Gradient in Radial Direction 77

Nomenclature 80

References 81

Further Reading 81

6 Analysis of Formed Heads and Transition Sections 84

6.1 Hemispherical Heads 84

6.1.1 Various Loading Conditions 86

6.1.2 Discontinuity Analysis 88

6.1.3 Thermal Stress 91

6.1.4 Buckling Strength 91

6.2 Ellipsoidal Heads 93

6.3 Torispherical Heads 95

6.4 Conical Heads 95

6.4.1 Unbalanced Forces at Cone-to-Cylinder Junction 96

6.4.2 Discontinuity Analysis 97

6.4.3 Cones Under External Pressure 98

6.5 Nomenclature 99

References 100

Further Reading 100

7 Stress in Flat Plates 102

7.1 Introduction 102

7.2 Circular Plates 102

7.3 Rectangular Plates 106

7.4 Circular Plates on Elastic Foundations 107

Nomenclature 109

Reference 109

Further Reading 109

Part III Design of Components 111

8 Design of Cylindrical Shells 114

8.1 ASME Design Equations 114

8.2 Evaluation of Discontinuity Stresses 115

8.3 ASME Procedure[2] for External Pressure Design in VIII-1 121

8.4 Design of Stiffening Rings 126

8.5 Allowable Gaps in Stiffening Rings 129

8.6 Out-of-Roundness of Cylindrical Shells Under External Pressure 129

8.7 Design for Axial Compression 132

Nomenclature 132

References 133

Further Reading 133

9 Design of Formed Heads and Transition Sections 136

9.1 Introduction 136

9.1.1 Flanged Heads 136

9.1.2 Hemispherical Heads 136

9.1.3 Elliptical and Torispherical (Flanged and Dished) Heads 136

9.1.4 Conical and Toriconical Heads 136

9.1.5 Miscellaneous Heads 136

9.2 ASME Design Equations for Hemispherical Heads 137

9.3 ASME Design Equations for Ellipsoidal, Flanged, and Dished Heads 139

9.4 ASME Design Equations for Conical Heads 143

9.4.1 Internal Pressure 143

9.4.1.1 Discontinuity Analysis for Internal Pressure 143

9.4.2 External Pressure 145

9.4.2.1 Discontinuity Analysis for External Pressure 145

Nomenclature 147

References 148

Further Reading 148

10 Blind Flanges, Cover Plates, and Flanges 150

10.1 Introduction 150

10.2 Circular Flat Plates and Heads with Uniform Loading 151

10.3 ASME Code Formula for Circular Flat Heads and Covers 153

10.4 Comparison ofTheory and ASME Code Formula for Circular Flat Heads and CoversWithout Bolting 154

10.5 Bolted Flanged Connections 154

10.6 Contact Facings 155

10.7 Gaskets 155

10.7.1 Rubber O-Rings 155

10.7.2 Metallic O- and C-Rings 155

10.7.3 Compressed Fiber Gaskets 158

10.7.4 Flat Metal Gaskets 158

10.7.5 Spiral-Wound Gaskets 158

10.7.6 Jacketed Gaskets 158

10.7.7 Metal Ring Gaskets 158

10.7.8 High-Pressure Gaskets 158

10.7.9 Lens Ring Gaskets 159

10.7.10 Delta Gaskets 159

10.7.11 Double-Cone Gaskets 159

10.7.12 Gasket Design 160

10.8 Bolting Design 161

10.9 Blind Flanges 163

10.10 Bolted Flanged Connections with Ring-Type Gaskets 164

10.11 Reverse Flanges 170

10.12 Full-Face Gasket Flange 171

10.13 Flange Calculation Sheets 176

10.14 Flat-Face Flange with Metal-to-Metal Contact Outside of the Bolt Circle 177

10.14.1 Classification of Assembly 177

10.14.2 Categories of Flanges 177

10.15 Spherically Dished Covers 177

Nomenclature 184

References 184

Further Reading 185

11 Openings, Nozzles, and External Loadings 188

11.1 General 188

11.2 Stresses and Loadings at Openings 188

11.3 Theory of Reinforced Openings 192

11.4 Reinforcement Limits 193

11.4.1 Reinforcement Rules for ASME Section I 195

11.4.1.1 No Reinforcement Required 195

11.4.1.2 Size and Shape of Openings 195

11.4.2 Reinforcement Rules for ASME Section VIII, Division 1 198

11.4.3 Reinforcement Rules for ASME, Section VIII, Division 2 204

11.4.3.1 Nomenclature 204

11.4.4 Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME B31.1 210

11.4.4.1 No Reinforcement Calculations Required 210

11.4.5 Reinforcement Rules for ANSI/ASME B31.3 212

11.4.5.1 Nomenclature 213

11.5 Ligament Efficiency of Openings in Shells 215

11.6 Fatigue Evaluation of Nozzles Under Internal Pressure 217

11.7 External Loadings 218

11.7.1 Local Stresses in the Shell or Head 218

11.7.2 Stresses in the Nozzle 226

11.7.2.1 Nomenclature 227

References 230

Bibliography 231

12 Vessel Supports 234

12.1 Introduction 234

12.2 Skirt and Base-Ring Design 234

12.2.1 Anchor-Chair Design 239

12.3 Design of Support Legs 241

12.4 Lug-Supported Vessels 242

12.5 Ring Girders 243

12.6 Saddle Supports 245

Nomenclature 248

References 249

Further Reading 249

Part IV Theory and Design of Special Equipment 251

13 Flat-Bottom Tanks 254

13.1 Introduction 254

13.2 API 650 Tanks 254

13.2.1 Roof Design 254

13.2.1.1 Dome Roofs 254

13.2.1.2 Conical Roofs 256

13.2.1.3 Small Internal Pressure 256

13.2.2 Shell Design 258

13.2.3 Annular Plates 261

13.3 API 620 Tanks 263

13.3.1 Allowable Stress Criteria 266

13.3.1.1 Compressive Stress in the Axial Direction with No Stress in the Circumferential Direction 266

13.3.1.2 Compressive Stress with Equal Magnitude in the Meridional and Circumferential Directions 266

13.3.1.3 Compressive Stress with Unequal Magnitude in the Meridional and Circumferential Directions 267

13.3.1.4 Compressive Stress in One Direction and Tensile Stress in the Other Direction 267

13.3.2 Compression Rings 267

13.4 Aluminum Tanks 270

13.4.1 Design Rules 270

13.5 AWWA Standard D100 271

References 273

Further Reading 273

14 Heat-Transfer Equipment 276

14.1 Types of Heat Exchangers 276

14.2 TEMA Design of Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 276

14.3 Theoretical Analysis of Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 280

14.4 ASME Equations for Tubesheets in U-tube Exchangers 283

14.4.1 Nomenclature 283

14.4.2 Preliminary Calculations 285

14.4.3 Design Equations 288

14.5 Theoretical Analysis of Fixed Tubesheets 291

14.6 ASME Equations for Fixed Tubesheets 293

14.6.1 Nomenclature 293

14.6.2 Preliminary Calculations 294

14.6.3 Design Equations 294

14.7 Expansion Joints 300

14.8 Tube-to-Tubesheet Junctions 303

References 305

Further Reading 305

15 Vessels for High Pressures 308

15.1 Basic Equations 308

15.2 Prestressing (Autofrettaging) of Solid-Wall Vessels 309

15.3 Layered Vessels 311

15.4 Prestressing of Layered Vessels 315

15.5 Wire-Wound Vessels 317

Nomenclature 317

References 318

Further Reading 318

16 Tall Vessels 320

16.1 Design Considerations 320

16.2 Earthquake Loading 320

16.2.1 Lateral Loads 320

16.2.2 Numerical Method for Calculating Natural Frequency 324

16.3 Wind Loading 331

16.3.1 External Forces fromWind Loading 332

16.3.2 Dynamic Analysis ofWind Loads 332

16.4 Vessel Under Internal Pressure Only 336

16.5 Vessel Under Internal Pressure and External Loading 338

16.6 Vessel Under External Pressure Only 340

16.7 Vessel Under External Pressure and External Loading 341

References 342

Bibliography 342

17 Vessels of Noncircular Cross Section 344

17.1 Types of Vessels 344

17.2 Rules in Codes 345

17.3 Openings in Vessels with Noncircular Cross Section 345

17.4 Ligament Efficiency for Constant-Diameter Openings 345

17.5 Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings Subject to Membrane Stress 349

17.6 Ligament Efficiency for Multidiameter Openings Subject to Bending Stress 350

17.7 Design Methods and Allowable Stresses 352

17.8 Basic Equations 353

17.9 Equations in the ASME Code, VIII-1 356

17.10 Design of Noncircular Vessels in Other Codes 360

17.10.1 Method of the British Code BS 1113 360

17.10.2 Method of the European Standards EN 12952 and EN 13445 360

17.11 Forces in Box Headers due to Internal Pressure 361

17.11.1 Square Headers 362

17.11.2 Rectangular Headers 362

References 364

Further Reading 364

18 Power Boilers 366

18.1 General 366

18.2 Materials 366

18.3 General Design Requirements 366

18.3.1 Allowable Stress Values 366

18.3.2 Cylinders under Internal Pressure 366

18.4 Formed Heads under Internal Pressure 368

18.5 Loadings on Structural Attachments 368

18.6 Watertube Boilers 369

18.6.1 Special Design Requirements and Rules 369

18.7 Firetube Boilers 373

18.7.1 Special Design Requirements and Rules 373

References 373

A Guide to ASME Code 375

B Sample of Heat-Exchanger Specification Sheet 383

C Sample of API Specification Sheets 387

D Sample of Pressure Vessel Design Data Sheets 393

E Sample Materials for Process Equipment 407

F Required Data for Material Approval in the ASME Code 411

G Procedure for Providing Data for Code Charts for External-Pressure Design 413

H Corrosion Charts 415

I Various ASME Design Equations 431

J Joint Efficiency Factors 433

K Simplified Curves for External Loading on Cylindrical Shells 445

L Conversion Tables 453

Index 455